Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic sugarcane leaves and tops

Charlie Marembu Dodo, Samphson Mamphweli, Omobola Okoh

Abstract


Bioethanol production is one of the most promising possible substitutes for fossil-based fuels, but there is a need to make available cost-effective methods of production if it is to be successful. Various methods for the production of bioethanol using different feedstocks have been explored. Bioethanol synthesis from sugarcane, their tops and leaves have generally been regarded as waste and discarded. This investigation examined the use of lignocellulosic sugarcane leaves and tops as biomass and evaluated their hydrolysate content. The leaves and tops were hydrolysed using concentrated and dilute sulphuric acid and compared with a combination of oxidative alkali-peroxide pre-treatment with enzyme hydrolysis using the enzyme cellulysin® cellulase. Subsequent fermentation of the hydrolysates into bioethanol was done using the yeast saccharomyces cerevisae. The problem of acid hydrolysis to produce inhibitors was eliminated by overliming using calcium hydroxide and this treatment was subsequently compared with sodium hydroxide neutralisation. It was found that oxidative alkali pre-treatment with enzyme hydrolysis gave the highest yield of fermentable sugars of 38% (g/g) for 7% (v/v) peroxide pretreated biomass than 36% (g/g) for 5% (v/v) with the least inhibitors. Concentrated and dilute acid hydrolysis each gave yields of 25% (g/g) and 22% (g/g) respectively, although the acid required a neutralisation step, resulting in dilution. Alkaline neutralisation of acid hydrolysates using sodium hydroxide resulted in less dilution and loss of fermentable sugars, compared with overliming. Higher yields of bioethanol of 13.7 g/l were obtained from enzyme hydrolysates than the 6.9 g/l ethanol from dilute acid hydrolysates. There was more bioethanol yield of 13.7 g/l after 72 hours of fermentation with the yeast than the 7.0 g/l bioethanol after 24 hours.This research showed that it is possible to use sugarcane waste material to supplement biofuel requirements and that combining the chemical and biological methods of pretreatments can give higher yields at a faster rate.


Keywords


lignocellulosic biomas;bioethanol;sugarcane leaves;pretreatment;biofuels

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adapa P.K., Schoenau G.J., Canam T. and Dumonceaux T. 2011. Quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic components of non-treated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Faculty Research and Creative Activity. Paper 107.

Ahring B.K., Jensen K., Nielsen.,Bjerre A.B. and Schmidt A.S. 2006. Pre-treatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic Bacteria. Bioresource 58: 107–113.

Alvira P., Tomas-Pejo E., Ballesteros M. and Negro M.J.2010. Pre-treatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzyme hydrolysis. A review. Bioresource Technology 101:4851–4861.

Balat M. 2011. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway. A review. Energy Conversion and Management 52: 858–875.

Belkacemi K., Turcotte G., Savoie P.and Chornet E.1997. Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolyzates of cellulosic fines and hemicellulose-rich liquors derived from aqueous/steam fractionation of forages. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 36: 4572–4580.

Boopathy R. and Shields S. 2011. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass of energy cane. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 65: 142–146.

Brethauer S., and Wyman C. E. 2010.Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production. BioresourceTechnology: 4862–4874.

Buaban B., Inoue H., Yano S., Tnapongpipat S., Ruanglek v., Champreda V., Pichyangkura R., Rengpipat S. andEurwilaichitr L.2010. Bioethanol production from ball milled bagasse using an on-site produced fungal enzyme cocktail and xylose- fermenting pichiastipitis. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 110(1): 18–25.

Cardona C. A. and Sánchez O. J. 2007. Fuel ethanol production: Process design trends and integration opportunities. Bioresource Technology 98: 2415–2457.

Chen, W., Tu, Y. and Sheen, H. 2011. Disruption of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulosic structure by means of dilute sulphuric acid pre-treatment with microwave-assisted heating. Applied Energy 88: 2726–2734.

Colthup, N. B., Daly L.H. and Wiberley S.E.1990.Introduction to infrared and raman spectroscopy. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Academic Press.

Dale B. E., Leong C. K., Pham T. K., Esquivel V. M., Rios I.and Lalitimer V. M. 1996. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosics at low enzyme levels. Application of the AFEX process. Bioresource Technology, 56:111–116.

Dawson L., Boopathy R. 2007. Use of post-harvest sugar cane for ethanol production. Bioresource Technology 98: 1695–1699.

De Bari I., Viola, E., Barisano D., Cardinale M., Nanna F., Zimbardi F., Cardinale G.andBraccio G.2002. Ethanol production at flask and pilot scale from concentrated slurries of steam-exploded aspen. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 41: 1745–1753.

Duff S.J.B. and Murray W.D.1996. Bioconversion of forest products industry wastes cellulosics to fuel ethanol: a review. Bioresource technology 55:1–33.

Galdos M, Cavalett O., Seabra J.E.A., Nogueira L.A.H. and Bonomi A.2013.Trends in global warming and human health impacts related to Brazilian sugarcane ethanol production considering black carbon emissions. Applied Energy 104: 546 – 582.

Ghose T.K. 1987. Measurement of cellulose activities. Pure and Applied Chemistry 59(2): 259–268.

Ghosh, P. and Ghose, T.K. 2003. Bioethanol in India: recent past and emerging future. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 85: 1–27.

Gong, C.S., Cao, N.J., Du, J.and Tsao, G.T. 1999. Ethanol production from renewable resources. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 65: 207–241.

Gregg D. J., Boussaid A. and Saddler J. N. 1998. Techno-economic evaluations of a generic wood-to- ethanol process. Effect of increased cellulose yields and enzyme recycle. Bioresource Technology 63: 7–12.

Hamelinck C.N., van Hooijdonk G.and Faaij A.P.C. 2005. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: Techno-economic performance in short-, middle- and long- term. Biomass and Energy 28: 384–410.

Hsu C., Chang K., Lai M., Chang T., Chang Y. and Jang H. 2011. Pre-treatment and hydrolysis of cellulosic agricultural wastes with a cellulase producing streptomyces for bioethanol production. Biomass and Bioenergy 35: 1878–1884.

Hui Li, Nag Jong Kim, Min Jiang, Jong Won Kang andHo Nam Chang. 2009. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Lignocellulosic residues pretreated with acid-acetone for bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology, 100: 3245 – 3251

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=lignocellulose+diagram&qpvt=lignocellulose+diagram,2011/11/05.

Ingram L.O., Gomez P.F., Lai X, Moniruzzaman M. and Wood B.E. 1998. Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58:204–14.

Karimi K., Kheradmandinia S. andTaherzadeh M. J. 2006.Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy 30. 247–243.

Laser M., Schulman D., Allen S. G., Lichwa J., Antal Jr M. J. and Lynd L. R. 2002. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol. Bioresource Technology 81:33–44.

Lee J. 1997.Biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Journal of Biotechnology; 56: 1–24.

Lenthan P., Orozco A., O’Neill E., Ahmad M.N.M., Rooney D.W. and Walker G.M. 2009. Dilute acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Chemical Engineering Journal 156: 395–403.

Limayem A. andRicke S.C. 2012. Lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production: Current perspectives, potential issues and future prospects. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 38: 449–467.

Lynd L.R., Cushaman J.H., Nichols R.J. and Wyman C.E.1991. Fuel ethanol from cellulogic biomass. Science 251:1318.

Margeot A., Hahn-Hagerdal B., Edlund M., Slade R.and Monot F. 2009. New improvements for lignocellulosic ethanol. Biotechnology 20: 372–380.

Nakamura Y., Sawada T. and Inoue E. 2001. Enhanced ethanol production from enzymatically treated steam-exploded rice straw using extractive fermentation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 76: 879–884.

Negro M.J., Manzanares P., Ballesteros I., Oliva J.M., Cabañas A. and Ballesteros M. 2003. Hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplas biomass. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 105–108: 87–100.

Olsson L. and Hahn-Hagerdal B. 1993. Fermentative performance of bacteria and yeasts in lignocellulose hydrolysates. Process Biochemistry 28: 249–57.

Olsson L., Linden T. and Hahn-Hagerdal B. 1992. Performance of microorganisms in spent sulfite liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated Salix. Applied Biotechnology Biochemistry 34/35: 359–67.

Olsson L. and Hahn-Hagerdal B.1996. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates for ethanol production. Enzyme Microbiology Technology 18: 312–31.

Ou S., Luo Y., Xue F., Huang C., Zhang N. and Liu Z. 2007. Separation and purification of ferulic acid in alkaline-hydrolysate from sugarcane bagasse by activated charcoal adsorption/anion macroporous resin exchange chromatography. Journal of Food Engineering 78: 1298–1304.

Prasad S., Sing A. and Joshi H.C. 2007. Ethanol as an alternative fuel from agricultural, industrial and urban residues. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 50: 1–39.

Rabelo S.C., Amezquita Fonseca N.A., Andrade R.R., Macielfilho R and Costa A.C. 2011. Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with lime and alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Biomass and Bioenergy: 1–8.

Saad M.B.W., Oliveira L.R.M., Candido R.G., Quintana G., Rocha G.J.M. andGoncalves A.R. 2008. Preliminary studies on fungal treatment of sugarcane straw for organosolv pulping. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 43: 220–225.

SánchezO.J. and Cardona C.A. 2008. Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from differentfeedstocks.Bioresource Technology 99: 5270–5295.

Sant’ana da Silva A., Inoe H., Endo T., Yano S. and Bon E.P.S. 2010. Milling pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. BioresourceTechnology: 7402–7409.

Schell, D.J., Farmer, J., Newman, M. and McMillan, J.D. 2003. Dilute sulphuric acid pre-treatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor. Investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 105(1–3): 69–85.

Segal L., Creely J.J., Martin A. E. and Conrad C.M. 1959. An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using X-ray Diffractometer. Textile Research Journal 29: 786–794.

Sindhu R., Kuttiraja M., Binod P., Janu K.U., Sukumaran R.K. and Pandey A. 2011. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane tops for bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology 102: 10915–10921.

Sun Y. And Cheng J.2002. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: A review. Biotechnology Resource 83: 1–11.

Taherzadeh, M.J. and Karimi K. 2007. Acid based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. Bioresources 2: 472–499.

Talebnia F., Karakshev D.andAngelidaki I. 2010. Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: An overview on pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. BioresourceTechnology 101: 4744–4753.

Wyman C.E., Dale B.E., Elander R.T., Holtzapple M., Ladisch M.R. and Lee Y.Y. 2005. Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresource Technology 6: 1959–66.

Wyman C.E., Dale B.E., Elander R.T., Holtzapple M., Ladisch M.R. and Lee Y.Y. 2005. Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover. Bioresource Technology 96: 2026–32.

Wyman C.E., Dale B.E., Elander R.T., Holtzapple M., Ladisch M.R. and Lee Y.Y. 2005.Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresource Technology 96: 1959–66.

Wyman C. E. and Goodman B. J. 1993. Biotechnology for production of fuel, chemicals and materials. Ap-plied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 39/40: 41–59.

Wyman C. E. 1995. Economic fundamentals of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. In: Saddler J., Penner M., eds. ACS Symposium Series. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society 618: 272–90.

Wyman C. E. 1999. Biomass ethanol: technical progress, opportunities, and commercial challenges. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 24:189–226.

Wyman, C.E. 1994. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: technology, economics and opportunities. BioresourceTechnology 50:3–16.

Zheng Y., Lin H.M. and Tsao G.T. 1998. Pre-treatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion. Biotechnology Progress 14(6):890–896.

Zhu M-Q., Wen J-L., Wang Z-W., Su Y-Q., Wei Q. and Sun R-C. 2015. Structural changes in lignin during intergrated process of steam explosion followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide of Eucommiaulmoides Oliver and its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Applied Energy, 158: 233–242.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3051/2017/v28i3a2354

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Charlie Marembu Dodo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.