Design and performance evaluation of wood-burning cookstoves for low-income households in South Africa

Keywords: heterogeneous stove-testing protocols; thermal efficiency; emissions performance; design and development; natural-draft cookstoves

Abstract

Many cookstove programmes implemented around the world aimed to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions through the dissemination and adoption of improved cookstoves. A study was carried out for the design of wood-burning cookstoves for low-income households in South Africa by employing user-centred design and co-design/co-creation approaches. Six designed variants of the biomass stove were constructed. Water-heating and emissions tests, using black wattle wood, were conducted to evaluate them for thermal and emissions performance. The large hopper stove with two secondary air inlets ranked highest, with best performance regarding thermal and emissions parameters. It outperformed the small hopper stove in time to boil, heat flux and firepower, although the latter had higher thermal efficiency values. Fuel consumption rates were high in large hopper stoves compared with small hopper stoves, resulting in increased firepower. The experimental work showed the need for iterative designing and testing of cookstoves for emissions and thermal performance to identify efficient and less polluting candidate stoves for dissemination in low-income communities.

Author Biographies

Tafadzwa Makonese, SeTAR Centre, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, P. Bag 524, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa

Senior Research Scientist, SeTAR Centre

Christopher Bradnum, University of Nottingham

Chris Bradnum is a Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Nottingham

References

1. International Energy Agency (IEA). 2017. From Poverty to Prosperity, in World Energy Outlook Special Report. OECD Publishing, Paris, France. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/energy-access-outlook-2017_9789264285569-en.
2. Zongxi, Z., Zhenfeng, S., Yinghua, Z., Hongyan, D., Yuguang, Z., Yixiang, Z., Ahmad, R., Pemberton-Pigott, C. and Renjie, D., 2017. Effects of biomass pellet composition on the thermal and emissions performances of a TLUD cooking stove. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 10(4):189-197. https://doi.org/10.25165/j.ijabe.20171004.2963
3. IEA. 2006. Energy for cooking in developing countries, in World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD Publishing, Paris, France. https://doi.org/10.1787/weo-2006-16-en.
4. Panwar, N.L. 2010. Performance evaluation of developed domestic cook stove with Jatropha shell. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 1(3):309-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-010-9040-8
5. Kimemia, D. and Annegarn, H., 2016. Domestic LPG interventions in South Africa: Challenges and lessons. Energy Policy. 93:150-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.03.005
6. Makonese, T., Masekameni, D.M., Annegarn, H.J. and Forbes, P.B., 2017. Emission factors of domestic coal-burning braziers. South African Journal of Science. 113(3-4):1-1. https://doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2017/20160187
7. Masekoameng, K.E., Simalenga, T.E. and Saidi, T., 2005. Household energy needs and utilization patterns in the Giyani rural communities of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 16(3):4-9.
8. Ng’andwe, P. and Ncube, E., 2011. Modelling carbon dioxide emission reduction through the use of improved cook stoves; a case for pulumusa, portable clay and fixed mud stoves in Zambia. UNZA Journal of Science and Technology. 15(2):5-17.
9. Karekezi, S. and Walubengo, D., 1989. Household stoves in Kenya: The case of the Kenya ceramic Jiko. Kenya Energy and Environment Organisations (KENGO), Nairobi, Kenya. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.036
10. Jingura, R.M., Musademba, D. and Kamusoko, R., 2013. A review of the state of biomass energy technologies in Zimbabwe. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 26:652-659.
11. Kimemia, D. and Annegarn, H.J., 2011. An urban biomass energy economy in Johannesburg, South Africa. Energy for Sustainable Development. 15(4):382-387.
12. Le Roux, L.J., Zunckel, M. and McCormick, S., 2009. Reduction in air pollution using the ‘Basa njengo Magogo’ method and the applicability to low-smoke fuels. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 20(3):3-10.
13. Leiman, A., Standish, B., Boting, A. and van Zyl, H., 2007. Reducing the healthcare costs of urban air pollution: The South African experience. Journal of Environmental Management. 84(1):27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.05.010
14. Van Niekerk, W., 2006. From technology transfer to participative design: a case study of pollution prevention in South African townships. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 17(3):58-64.
15. Annegarn, H.J. and Sithole, J.S., 1999. Soweto air monitoring project (SAM). Quarterly Report to the Department of Minerals and Energy, Report No. AER. 20.
16. Namork, E., Kurup, V.P., Aasvang, G.M. and Johansen, B.V., 2004. Detection of latex allergens by immunoelectron microscopy in ambient air (PM10) in Oslo, Norway (1997-2003). Journal of Environmental Health. 67(4):20-26.
17. Kumar, A. and Attri, A.K., 2016. Biomass combustion a dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols in the ambient environment of Western Himalayas. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 16(3):519-529. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2015.05.0284
18. Finkelman, R.B., Orem, W., Castranova, V., Tatu, C.A., Belkin, H.E., Zheng, B., Lerch, H.E., Maharaj, S.V. and Bates, A.L., 2002. Health impacts of coal and coal use: possible solutions. International Journal of Coal Geology. 50(1):425-443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-5162(02)00125-8
19. Bai, H., Ma, Y., Ai, X., Li, H., Liu, P. and Cang, D., 2011. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter generated from coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler. In Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA) Conference, Shanghai, China. 708-711
20. Teramae, T. and Takarada, T., 2009. Fine ash formation during pulverized coal combustion. Energy & Fuels. 23(4): 2018-2024. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef800658w
21. Chakrabarty, R.K., Beres, N.D., Moosmüller, H., China, S., Mazzoleni, C., Dubey, M.K., Liu, L. and Mishchenko, M.I., 2014. Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing. Scientific Reports. 4:5508. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05508
22. Zhang, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhou, Y., Ahmad, R., Pemberton-Pigott, C., Annegarn, H. and Dong, R., 2017. Systematic and conceptual errors in standards and protocols for thermal performance of biomass stoves. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72:1343-1354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.10.037
23. MacCarty, N., Still, D. and Ogle, D., 2010. Fuel use and emissions performance of fifty cooking stoves in the laboratory and related benchmarks of performance. Energy for Sustainable Development. 14(3):161-171.
24. Anderson, P.S., Reed, T.B. and Wever, P.W., 2007. Micro-gasification: What it is and why it works. Boiling Point. 53(3):35-37.
25. Kornelius, G., Sithole, A., Kruger, S., Fouchee, R. and van Wyk, H., 2013. A wood gasification stove for domestic use: Performance and emission factors using locally available fuel. IUAPPA Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
26. Mal, R., Prasad, R. and Vijay, V.K. 2017. Product technology, materials overview and economic aspects for development of forced draft TEG cookstove. International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. 55(1-3):74-92. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMPT.2017.084977
27. Raman, P., Ram, N.K. and Gupta, R. 2014. Development, design and performance analysis of a forced draft clean combustion cookstove powered by a thermo-electric generator with multi-utility options. Energy. 69:813-825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.03.077
28. Arora, P. and Jain, S., 2016. A review of chronological development in cookstove assessment methods: Challenges and way forward. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 55:203-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.142
29. Makonese, T. and Bradnum, C., 2017. Public participation in technological innovation: The case of the Tshulu stove development programme. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 28(1):13-24. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3051/2017/v28i1a1379
30. Honkalaskar, V.H., Bhandarkar, U.V. and Sohoni, M., 2013. Development of a fuel-efficient cookstove through a participatory bottom-up approach. Energy, Sustainability and Society. 3(1):16. https://doi.org/10.1186/2192-0567-3-16
31. Prasad, K.K., Sangren, E., Sielcken, M., and Visser, P., 1983. Test results on kerosene and other stoves. Report for Energy Assessment Division. Washington DC: Energy Department, World Bank.
32 Bhattacharya, S.C., Albina, D.O., and Salam, P.A., 2002. Emission factors of wood and charcoal-fired cookstoves. Biomass and Bioenergy. 23(6):453-469.
33. Ahuja, D.R., Joshi, V., Smith, K.R., and Venkataraman, C., 1987. Thermal performance and emission characteristics of unvented biomass-burning cookstoves: a proposed standard method for evaluation. Biomass. 12(4):247-270.
34. Zhang, J., Smith, K.R., Uma, R., Ma, Y., Kishore, V.V., Lata, K., Khalil, M.A., Rasmussen, R.A., and Thorneloe, S.T., 1999. Carbon monoxide from cookstoves in developing countries: 1. Emission factors. Chemosphere-Global Change Science. 1(1):353-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1465-9972(99)00004-5
35. Kimemia, D.K., and Van Niekerk, A., 2017. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns. South African Medical Journal, 107(4):289-291. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i4.12436
36. Champier, D., Bedecarrats, J.P., Rivaletto, M., and Strub, F., 2010. Thermoelectric power generation from biomass cook stoves. Energy, 35(2):935-942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.07.015
37. Roberts, M.J., Everson, R.C., Domazetis, G., Neomagus, H.W., Jones, J.M., Van Sittert, C.G., Okolo, G.N., Van Niekerk, D., and Mathews, J.P., 2015. Density functional theory molecular modelling and experimental particle kinetics for CO2–char gasification. Carbon, 93:295-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.05.053
38. L’Orange, C., DeFoort, M., and Willson, B., 2012. Influence of testing parameters on biomass stove performance and development of an improved testing protocol. Energy for Sustainable Development. 16(1):3-12.
39. Arora, P., Das, P., Jain, S., and Kishore, V.V., 2014. A laboratory-based comparative study of Indian biomass cookstove testing protocol and water boiling test. Energy for Sustainable Development. 21:81-88.
Views
  • Abstract 177
  • pdf 166
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2018-12-03