The viability of biomethane as a future transport fuel for Zambian towns: A case study of Lusaka

Keywords: Biogas, biomethane, future transport fuel, environmental, social and economic benefits

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the viability of biomethane as a transport fuel for Zambian urban towns. The study revealed good potential for biomethane production and use as a transport fuel in Zambian towns, using Lusaka as a case example. There is 3.67 million m3 biomethane potential from municipal solid waste alone in Lusaka. About 3 000 tonnes of organic fertiliser would replace an equivalent amount of chemical fertiliser. The replaced chemical fertiliser would lead to about 5.816 GgCO2eqy-1 as avoided emissions. The study showed a positive net present value at the prevailing market interest rates of 28–40%; the project would become unviable at interest rates higher than that. It was estimated that the project would recover its initial investment in a maximum of two years. The research findings have closed data and information gaps in Zambia and have potential to contribute to academic research, policymaking, investments, financing and interested parties.

References

[1] Singh, A., Smyth, B.M. and Murphy, J.D. 2010. A biofuel strategy for Ireland with an emphasis on production of biomethane and minimization of land-take, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14: 277–88.
[2] Zuccari, F., Santiangeli, A., Dell’Era, A., D’orazio, A., Fiori, C. and Orecchini, F. 2015. Use of bio-methane for auto motive application: primary en-ergy balance and well to wheel analysis, Energy Procedia, 81: 255–271.
[3] Boulamanti, A.K., Maglio, S.D., Giuntoli, J. and Agostini, A. 2013. Influence of different practices on biogas sustainability, Biomass Bioenergy, 53:149–61.
[4] Piwowar, A., Dzikuć, M. and Adamczy, K. 2016. Agricultural biogas plants in Poland – selected technological, market and environmental aspects, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58: 69–74.
[5] Coimbra-Araujo, C.H., Mariane, L., Junior, C.B., Frigo, E.P., Frigo, M.S., Araujo, Costa. I.R. and Alves, H.J. 2014. Brazilian case study for biogas energy: Production of electric power, heat and au-tomotive energy in condominiums of agroenergy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40: 826-839.
[6] Ghimire, P.C. 2013. SNV supported domestic biogas programmes in Asia and Africa. Renewable Energy, 49: 90-94.
[7] Nizami, A., Korres, N.E. and Murphy, J.D. 2009. Review of the integrated process for the produc-tion of grass biomethane, Environmental Science & Technology, 43: 8496–508.
[8] Murphy, J., Braun, R., Weiland, P. and Wellinger, A. 2011. Biogas from crop digestion, IEA Bioener-gy Task 37. http://www.iea-biogas.net/ [accessed: 15/10/2017].
[9] Mengistu, M.G., Simane, B., Eshete, G. and Work-neh, T.S. 2015. A review on biogas technology and its contributions to sustainable rural livelihood in Ethiopia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48: 306-316.
[10] Budzianowski, W.M. and Budzianowski, D.A. 2015. Economic analysis of biomethane and bioe-lectricity generation from biogas using different support schemes and plant configurations, Energy, 88: 658-666.
[11] Papacz, W. 2011. Biogas as vehicle fuel, Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, 18 (1): 403-310.
[12] International Renewable Energy Agency, 2018. Biogas for road vehicles: Technology brief, Inter-national Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi.
[13] Mihic, S. 2004. Biogas fuel for internal combustion engines, annals of the Faculty of Engineering, uni-versity of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
[14] Sanches-Pereira, P., Lonnqvist, T., Gomez, M.F., Coelho, S.T. and Tudeschini, L.G. 2015. Is natural gas a backup fuel against shortages of biogas or a threat to the Swedish vision of pursuing a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels? Renewable Ener-gy, 83: 1187-1199.
[15] Shane, A., Gheewala, S.H. and Kasali, G. 2015. Potential, barriers and prospects of biogas produc-tion in Zambia, Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment, 6: 21-26.
[16] Jingura, R.M. and Matengaifa, R. 2009. Optimiza-tion of biogas production by anaerobic digestion for sustainable energy development in Zimbabwe, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13: 1116–20.
[17] Central Statistics Office, Living conditions monitoring survey report 2006 and 2010, Central Statistics Office, 2012, Lusaka.
[18] Senkwe, B.K., Kambole, M.S. and Frijns, J. 1999. Improvement of refuse collection in Kitwe: A par-ticipatory approach, SINPA 32, Institute for hous-ing and urban development studies, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
[19] Shane, A., Gheewala, S.H. and Kafwembe, Y. 2017. Urban commercial biogas power plant model for Zambian towns, Renewable Energy, 103: 1-14.
[20] Tonkunya, N. and Wongwuttanasatian, T. 2013. Utilization of biogas diesel mixture as fuel in a ferti-liser pelletizing machine for reduction of green-house gas emission in small farms, Energy for Sustainable Development, 17: 240 -244.
[21] Bond, T.B. and Templeton, M.R. 2011. History and future of domestic biogas plants in the devel-oping world, Energy for Sustainable Develop-ment, 15:347-354.
[22] Shane, A., Gheewala, S.H. and Phiri, S. 2017. Rural domestic biogas supply model for Zambia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78:, 683-697.
[23] Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organiza-tion, 2015. Greenhouse gas emissions from ferti-liser. www.haicarbonlabel.tgo.or.th/tools/files.php? (Accessed March 27, 2017).
[24] Kool, A., Marinussen, M., Blonk, H. LCI data for the calculation tool Feedprint for greenhouse gas emissions of feed production and utilization, GHG Emissions of N, P and K fertiliser production, 2012.
[25] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2006. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Volume 4, Agriculture, forestry and other land uses, Chapter 11: Generic methodolo-gies applicable to multiple land use category, To-kyo: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
[26] Elsgaard, L. 2010. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rape-seed for biofuels and from production of biogas from manure, Aarhus University.
[27] Figueiredo, E.B., Panosso, A.R., Romao, R. and La Scala Jr, N.R. 2010. Greenhouse gas emission as-sociated with sugar production in southern Brazil. Carbon Balance and Management, 5(3): 1-7.
[28] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2006. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Volume 2, Energy, Chapter 2: Sta-tionary combustion, Tokyo: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
[29] Chakrabarty, S. MuktadirBoksh, F.I.M. and Chakraborty, A. 2013. Economic viability of bio-gas and green self-employment opportunities, Re-newable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 28: 757-766.
[30] Kang, J.Y., Kang, D.W., Kim, T.S. and Hur, K.B. 2014. Comparative economic analysis of gas tur-bine based power generation and combined heat and power systems using biogas fuel. Energy, 67: 309-318.
[31] United Nations Environmental Programme, 2015. Strategies and mechanisms for promoting cleaner production investments in developing countries: profiting from cleaner production performing net present value (NPV) Calculations.
[32] Shane, A., Gheewala, S.H., Fungtammasan, B., Bonnet, S., Silaletruksa, T. and Phiri, S. 2016. Bi-oenergy resource assessment for Zambia, Renew-able and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53: 93-104.
[33] Environmental Council of Zambia, 2008. Zambia Environmental Outlook Report 3: Lusaka: Envi-ronmental Council of Zambia.
[34] Thapa, S. and Keyser, J. 2012. Agriculture and environmental services, Agribusiness indicators: Zambia. World Bank, Washington DC.
[35] Dilidili, J.Q., Polinga, C.A., Ararao-Pelle, R. and Sangalang, R.S. 2011. Biogas technology in Phil-ippines: A synthesis of various readings on biogas technology, Cavite.
[36] International Fertiliser Industry Association Ferti-lisers, 2009. Climate Change and Enhancing Agri-cultural Productivity Sustainably, IFA, Paris, France.
[37] Al Seadi, T., Rutz, D., Prassl, H., Kottner, M., Fin-sterwalder, T., Volk, S. and Janssen, R. 2008. Bio-gas handbook, University of Southern Denmark.
[38] National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2013. Feasibility study of anaerobic digestion of food waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana, The U.S. Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Re-newable Energy Laboratory, Interagency Agree-ment IAG-08-0719 and Task No WFD3.1001.
[39] Shane, A,. and Gheewala, SH. 2017. Missed envi-ronmental benefits of biogas production in Zam-bia, Cleaner Production, 142: 1200-1209.
[40] Demirel, Y. 2012. Energy, green energy and tech-nology, 2012. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2372-9_2, Springer-Verlag, London.
[41] Senkwe, B.K. and Mwale, A.H. 2001. Solid waste in Kitwe: Solid waste characterization study for the city of Kitwe, Zambia, Phase 1, SINPA 28, Institute for housing and urban development studies, Rot-terdam, Netherlands.
[42] Shane, A. and Gheewala, S.H. 2015. Missed envi-ronmental benefits of biogas production in Zam-bia, The 5th international conference on green and sustainable innovation and the 5th TIChE interna-tional conference, Dusit, Pattaya, Thailand, No-vember 8-10.
[43] Smith J.U. 2013. The potential of small scale bio-gas digesters to improve livelihoods and long Term sustainability of ecosystem services in Sub-Saharan Africa, Department for International De-velopment, UK.
[44] Hochloff, P. and Braun, M. 2014. Optimizing bio-gas plants with excess power unit and storage ca-pacity in electricity and control reserve markets, Biomass and Bioenergy, 65: 125-135.
[45] Akbulut, A. 2012. Techno-economic analysis of electricity and heat generation from farm-scale bio-gas plant: Çiçekdagi case study, Energy, 44: 381-390.
[46] Riva, C., Schievano, A., D’Imporzano, G. and Adani, F. 2014. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy. Waste Management, 34: 429-1435.
[47] Fischer, E., Schmidt, T., Hora, S., Giersdorf, J., Stinner, W. and Scholwin, F. 2010. Renewable Energy Project Development Programme East Afri-ca. Agro-industrial biogas in Kenya: Potentials, es-timates for tariffs, policy and business recommen-dations, German Agency for Technical Coopera-tion.
[48] Germany Energy Agency, 2010. The role of natu-ral gas and biomethane in the fuel mix of the fu-ture in Germany: Required action and potential solutions to accelerate adoption in transport appli-cations, etc.
[49] Zambia Environmental Management Agency, 2008. Environmental Management Act, Statutory Instrument, 12: 87-178.
[50] BOZ, 2010. Survey on how commercial banks determine lending interest rates in Zambia, Bank of Zambia.
[51] Mbao, F.Z., Kapembwa, C., Mooka, O., Rasmus-sen, T. and Sichalwe, J. 2014. Determinants of bank lending rates in Zambia: A balance sheet ap-proach, Bank of Zambia Working Paper WP/02.
[52] Hahn, H., Ganagin, W., Hartmann, K. and Wachendorf, M. 2014. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation, Bioresource Technology, 170: 211-220.
[53] Zambia Environmental Management Agency, En-vironmental impact assessment regulations, Statu-tory Instrument, 28: 93-117.
[54] Government Republic of Zambia, 2015. The Laws of Zambia, The Fees and Fines Act, Statutory In-strument No. 41 of 2015.
[55] Japanese International Corporation Agency, 2011. Cost of doing business in Zambia. JICA, 1-16.
[56] Zambia Revenue Authority, 2015. The tax system in Zambia, Lusaka.
[57] Allegue, L.B. and Hinge, J. 2012. Biogas and bio-syngas upgrading report, Danish Technological In-stitute, Aarhus, Denmark.
[58] Petersson, A., and Wellinger, A. 2009. Biogas up-grading technologies – developments and innova-tions, IEA Bioenergy, Task 37 - Energy from bio-gas and landfill gas
[59] Hagen, M., Polman, E., Myken, A., Jensen, J., Jonsson, O. and Dahl, A. Adding gas from bio-mass to the gas grid. Final report Contract No: XVII/4.1030/Z/99 -412, 2001.
Views
  • Abstract 6
  • pdf 6
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2018-09-25