Power system inertia in an inverter-dominated network

Abstract

Erosion of power system inertial energy due to high penetration levels of renewable energy (RE) sources in a power system is a current teething issue with most system operators everywhere. The main issue is displacement of synchronous generators with inverter-based based generators, as the latter do not provide any inertial energy to the power system. The power system thereby becomes vulnerable to large system events (like sudden loss of a big generator or load) and in an inverter-based system this could result in catastrophes such as total collapse of the whole power system due to rapid rate of change of frequency. This paper focuses on power system inertia as RE penetration levels increase and also explores possible mitigation measures such as demand response techniques.

References

[1] International Energy Agency, Renewables Information 2018: Overview, 2018.
https://webstore.iea.org/download/direct/2260?fileName=Renewables_Information_2018_Overview.pdf
[2] International Energy Agency, Renewables 2018 - Analysis and Forecasts to 2023, 2018.
https://webstore.iea.org/download/summary/2312?fileName=English-Renewables-2018-ES.pdf
[3] P. Tielens and D. Van Hertem, The relevance of inertia in power systems, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 55, pp. 999–1009, Mar. 2016.
[4] Andreas Ulbig, Theodor S. Borsche, Göran Andersson, Impact of Low Rotational Inertia on Power System Stability and Operation, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, Volume 47, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 7290-7297 https://doi.org/10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.02615.
[5] M. Rezkalla, M. Marinelli, M. Pertl, and K. Heussen, Trade-off analysis of virtual inertia and fast primary frequency control during frequency transients in a converter dominated network, in 2016 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia), 2016, pp. 890–895.
[6] F. M. Gonzalez-Longatt, Impact of emulated inertia from wind power on under-frequency protection schemes of future power systems, J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 211–218, 2016.
[7] EirGrid and SONI(system operator for northern Ireland), DS3: rate of change of frequency ( ROCOF ) Workstream Plan, no. January, pp. 1–7, 2011.
[8] Australian Energy Market Operator, Inertia Requirements Methodology, June, 2018.
http://energylive.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/Electricity/NEM/Security_and_Reliability/System-Security-Market-Frameworks-Review/2018/Inertia_Requirements_Methodology_PUBLISHED.pdf
[9] P. Wattles, Renewable Integration in ERCOT, 2017. http://energyweek.utexas.edu/files/2017/02/Wattles.pdf
[10] ENTSO-E, Frequency Stability Evaluation Criteria for the Synchronous Zone of Continental Europe, p. 25, 2016. https://docstore.entsoe.eu/Documents/SOC%20documents/RGCE_SPD_frequency_stability_criteria_v10.pdf
[11] Eirgrid and SONI, Operational Constraints Update, pp. 1–14, 2017. http://www.eirgrid.com/media/OperationalConstraintsUpdateVersionApril2013.pdf
[12] J. Stojkovic and N. Rajakovic, Demand response for frequency control in an interconnected power system, Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower 2016), Belgrade, 2016, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.1049/cp.2016.1007.
[13] K. Wada, A. Yokoyama, S. Kawauchi, and F. Ishikawa, Frequency control using fast demand response in power system with a large penetration of renewable energy sources, 2014 Int. Conf. Power Syst. Technol., no. Powercon, pp. 1150–1156, 2014.
[14] V. Smith, I. Tshwagong, M. Ntusi, V. Smith, and C. Masike, Ancillary Services Technical Requirements for 2017/18 - 2021/22, Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, South Africa,Tech. Rep. 342-434, pp. 1–26, 2016.
[15] National Energy Regulator of South Africa, The South African Grid Code: The System Operation Code, no. July, pp. 1–21, 2008.
Views
  • Abstract 29
  • pdf 30
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2019-06-22