Managing a transition to green energy sources: The perspectives of energy practitioners in the Southern African Development Community region.
AbstractThe Southern African Development Community (SADC) region has low energy security, exacerbated by electricity power cuts and load-shedding in almost all its member states. Green energy has the potential to contribute to the shortfall in the supply of energy required on the grid network during daily (morning and evening) and seasonal (winter) peak periods. The Statistica 12 program was used to analyse and compare responses between identified groups in the SADC regionâ€™s Energy sector. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variance were used to examine associations between variables within the identified categories of respondents, and conclusions were made about six hypotheses. The categories of respondents sampled included: people associated with fossil fuel and renewable energy; people with experience of 1-6 years and more than 6 years; researchers and industry practitioners; practitioners based in South Africa and in other SADC countries; and a category based on practitionersâ€™ positions (junior managers, middle managers, and senior managers) in their respective organisations. The study found that energy practitioners generally support a transition to green energy sources and there is consensus that the uptake of green energy will be slow initially, driven by low costs of fossil-based sources, but the uptake will eventually grow exponentially to a point of driving industries in future. The study recommends that SADC countries prioritise mapping of green energy resources to facilitate the selection of suitable green energy options in order to meet local energy needs and environmental protection. Research and development of suitable green energy storage technologies to overcome intermittency of some green energy sources must be expedited in the region.
Barry, M. L., Steyn, H. and Brent, A. C. 2011. Selection of renewable energy technologies for Africa: Eight case studies in Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. Renewable Energy, (36): 2845â€“2852.
Cho, J. and Kleit, A. N. 2015. Energy storage systems in energy and ancillary markets: A backwards induction approach. Applied Energy, (147): 176â€“183.
Collier, P. and Venables, A. J. 2012. Greening Africa? Technologies, endowments and the latecomer effect. Energy Economics, (34): 75â€“84.
Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA). 2014. Energy strategy [Online]. Available: www.dbsa.org/ EN/DBSAOperations/Proj/Sector/.../Energy.aspx [Accessed 09 December 2014].
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2014. Africa energy outlook: A focus on energy prospects in the Sub-Saharan Africa [Online]. Available: www.iea.org/ publications/.../publication/weo2014_africaenergyoutlook.pdf [Accessed 06 July 2015].
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2012. Social acceptance of wind energy projects â€˜winning hearts and mindsâ€™. International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement, IEA Wind Task 28: Paris: OECD/IEA. [Online]. Available: www.iea.org/media/ workshops/2011/.../3_huber_horbaty.pdf. [Accessed 12 January 2015].
Kammen, D. M. and Kirubi, C. 2008. Poverty, energy, and resource use in developing countries: Focus on Africa. New York Academy of Sciences, 11(36): 348â€“357.
Kathirvel, C. and Porkumaran, K. 2011. Technologies for tapping renewable energy: A European survey. Journal of Scientific Research, 67(1): 112â€“118.
Lau, L.C., Lee K. T. and Mohamed, A. R. 2012. Global warming mitigation and renewable energy policy development from the Kyoto Protocol to the Copenhagen Accord â€“ a comment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (16): 5280â€“5284.
Leedy, P. D. and Ormrod, J. E. 2005. Practical research, planning and design 8th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson
KPMG. 2014. Sub-Saharan Africa power outlook. [Online]. Available: www.kpmg.com/ZA/en/ IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/General-Industries-Publications/Documents/2014%20Sub-Saharan%20Africa%20Power%20Outlook.pdf [Accessed 07 February 2015].
Ma, T., Yang, H. and Lu, L. 2015. Development of hybrid battery super capacitor energy storage for remote area renewable energy systems. Applied Energy, (153): 56â€“62.
Marchal, V., Dellink, R., Van Vuuren, D., Clapp, C., ChÃ¢teau, J., Lanzi, E., MagnÃ©, B. and Van Vliet, J. 2011. OECD environmental outlook to 2050 [Online]. Available: http:www.oecd.org/environment/outlookto2050/html [Accessed 25 June 2013].
Milborrow, D.J. 2011. Wind energy: A technology that is still evolving [Online]. Available: http://pia.sagepub.com/content/225/4/539.refs.html [Accessed 20 March 2015].
Nezhad, H. 2009. World energy scenarios to 2050: Issues and options [Online]. Available: www.nezhadpmd.com/worldenergyscenarios.pdf [Accessed 24 June 2013].
Odhiambo, N.M. 2010. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study. Energy Policy (38): 2463â€“2469.
Otiti, T. and Soboyebo, W.O. 2006. Limited Contribution of photovoltaic energy technology to economic development of Sub-Saharan Africa. Perspectives on global development and technology. Journal of Developing Societies, (5): 1â€“2.
Owen, M., van der Plas, R. and Sepp, S. 2013. Can there be energy policy in Sub-Saharan Africa without biomass. Energy for Sustainable Development, (17): 146â€“152.
Regional Infrastructure Development Master Plan (RIDMP). 2012. Energy sector Plan, Southern African Development Community Secretariat.
SADC Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (SACREEE). 2013. Project Document: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) [Online]. Available: www.eueipdf.org/sites/ default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/SACREEE%20Project%20Document%20-%20final.pdf [Accessed 30 July 2015].
Sanoh, A., Kocaman, A.S., Kocal, S., Sherpa, S. and Modi, V. 2014. The economics of clean energy resource development and grid interconnection in Africa. Renewable Energy, (62): 598â€“609.
Sartipipour, M. 2011. Renewable energies zoning towards the development of rural areas in Iran. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(2): 771â€“ 777.
Sebitosi, A.B. and Okou, R., 2010. Re-thinking the power transmission model for Sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Policy, (38): 1448â€“1454.
Shukla, P.R., Dhar, S. and Fujino, J. 2010. Renewable energy and low carbon economy transition in India. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2): 1â€“15.
Solomon, A.A., Kammen, D.M. and Callaway, D. 2014. The role of large-scale energy storage design and dispatch in the power grid: A study of very high grid penetration of variable renewable Resources. Applied Energy, (134): 75â€“89.
Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). 2013. [Online]. Available: www.sapp.co.zw/areports.html [Accessed 25 June 2015].
Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). 2014. [Online]. Available: www.sapp.co.zw/areports.html [Accessed 30 June 2015].
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2011. Towards a green economy: Pathway to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Versionâ€“02.11.2011. Nairobi: Kenya.
World Energy Council. 2013a. World energy resources [Online]. Available: www.worldenergy.org/wp.../ 2013/.../Complete_WER_2013_Survey.pdf [Accessed 07 August 2015].
World Energy Council. 2013b. World energy issues monitor [Online]. Available: www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/ 02/2013-World-Energy-Issues-Monitor-Report-Feb2013.pdf [Accessed 07 August 2015].
World Energy Council. 2012. World Energy Trilemma: Time to get real â€“ the case for sustainable energy policy [Online]. Available: www.worldenergy.org/.../ 2013-Time-to-get-real-the-case-forsustainable energy-investment.pdf [Accessed 07 August 2015].
Wustenhagen, R. and Menichetti, E. 2012. Strategic choices for renewable energy investment: Conceptual framework and opportunities for further research. Energy Policy, (40): 1â€“10.
Copyright remains with the author(s).
Publishing rights remain with the author(s)
All articles published in JESA can be re-used under the following CC license: CC BY-SA Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.