https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/issue/feed South African Journal of Sports Medicine 2018-05-22T09:47:38+00:00 Prof Mike Lambert mike.lambert@uct.ac.za Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<em>South African Journal of Sports Medicine (</em>S. Afr. j. sports med)&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles, reviews, commentaries, letters and case studies on topics related to the disciplines represented by the <a href="http://www.sasma.org.za/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">South African Sports Medicine Association</a>. One volume is published a year with articles added as they are ready for publication.&nbsp;These disciplines include sports medicine, biokinetics, physiotherapy, exercise and sports science, dietetics and psychology. Material that is particularly unique and relevant to South Africa and its inhabitants are given preference; however, any other material of general interest and relevance will also be considered.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/4835 The transition of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine 2018-03-26T16:19:41+00:00 M Lambert mike.lambert@uct.ac.za <p>.</p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/4923 Injury and illness profiles during the 2014 South African Ironman triathlon 2018-04-10T15:50:18+00:00 L Holtzhausen holt.louis@gmail.com <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Background: </strong>There is a need for ongoing scrutiny of injury and illness profiles of ultra-distance athletes. This study aimed to record the medical history, illness and injuries of athletes receiving medical attention during the 2014 Ironman South Africa (IMSA) triathlon, and to investigate the temporal presentation of medical encounters.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. All athletes who required medical attention at the main medical tent and all of the medical posts or mobile units along the route were included in this study A total of 2 331 athletes started the race. Data included age, gender, time and stage of the race when medical attention was required, pre-race medical history and medication use, illness and injuries treated, special investigations performed, and weather conditions.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Overall, 179 athletes (7.7%) required medical attention. The incidence of medical encounters was 7.8%. A significantly higher percentage of younger participants encountered medical problems (<em>P </em>= 0.04). Most patient encounters (80.1%) occurred after the race. The median duration of treatment was 26 minutes. Medication was used by 35.1% of patients during the race. The most common medical encounters were exertion-related (71.2%), gastro-intestinal (16.4%), dermatological (11.9%), musculoskeletal (9.6%) and cardiorespiratory conditions (2.4%).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medical encounters occurred more frequently in later stages of the race. Most medical conditions were exertion-related. Potential higher risk may be associated with medication use, recent illness, and in younger participants. Temporal stacking of medical personnel, planning of resources according to expected conditions, preventative measures for high-risk behaviour, and on-going data collection with comparable methodology are recommended.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/4924 Concussion knowledge and attitudes amongst Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players 2018-04-10T15:57:39+00:00 W Kraak kjw@sun.ac.za <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Background: </strong>Concussion occurs more frequently in contact sports, such as rugby, and is furthermore not fully recognised during play. It is also underreported in the literature, to medical personnel, or to coaches.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge about and attitudes towards concussion by Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study focussed on gathering quantitative information through implementing a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and eighty Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players completed the modified Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey - Student Version (RoCKAS-ST). The RoCKAS-ST questionnaire is divided into three parts, namely, the evaluation of the Concussion Knowledge Index (CKI) and Concussion Attitudes Index (CAI), and a 16-symptom checklist.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The participants scored on average 75% in the CKI and 81% in the CAI. The correlation between CKI and CAI was r=0.14 which is considered a weak positive correlation.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>The participants demonstrated sufficient knowledge of concussion and thus a safer attitude towards concussion. There were some concerning factors from the knowledge of the concussion questions and the symptoms that may have an effect on attitudes towards concussion.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed that Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players have sufficient knowledge of what constitutes concussion, as well as the necessity of having safe attitude towards it. However, a small number of participants showed that they still may lack knowledge in certain areas concerning concussion.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/4940 A cross-sectional study of 2550 amateur cyclists shows lack of knowledge regarding relevant sports nutrition guidelines 2018-04-11T15:47:32+00:00 D C Janse van Rensburg christa.jansevanrensburg@up.ac.za <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Background: </strong>Amateur cyclists use a wide variety of supplements and nutritional substances to increase performance in addition to their training.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The intended nutritional supplement use, carbohydrate (CHO) use and hydration practices of amateur cyclists before, during and after endurance cycling were analysed. Evidence of ignorance regarding the use of sports supplements and CHO, as well as the disregard of hydration strategy was hypothesised.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Amateur cyclists, of all age and sex groups, were requested to complete an online survey anonymously on the 2013 Momentum 94.7 Cycle Challenge website, a few days before the event.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Responses were received from 2 550 out of 30 640 race entrants (8%); representing a distribution of 75% males, 25% females, with the majority between 25 to 45 years old. Nutritional supplements were used by 59% of respondents, with 77% dose adherence, and 29% with supplement ingredient knowledge. Half of the respondents (48%) planned to carbo-load two-three days before the event, while only five percent used professional advice to scientifically calculate their carbo-loading requirements. CHO were consumed by 81% during the event. Hydration preferences during the race were sports drinks (59%) and water (22%); and after the race 45% preferred a sports drink and 40% water. Ingredients, taste, colour, and temperature were criteria used to choose a sports drink. Only 18% of respondents knew to use both colour of urine and thirstiness to determine post-race fluid requirements.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The authors concluded that amateur cyclists had insufficient knowledge regarding nutritional supplement ingredients and usage, CHO requirements and carbo-loading practices, and hydration strategies before, during and after the event.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/4854 Preventing the seemingly unpreventable – challenging the return-to-play criteria for recurrent hamstring strain prevention 2018-03-29T13:02:42+00:00 N Craddock CRDNIC004@myuct.ac.za <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Background: </strong>Hamstring strains are one of the most common injuries in sport. Previous injury has been found to be one of the greatest risk factors associated with recurrent hamstring strains. Although rehabilitation programmes have been developed and implemented to aid safe and efficient return-to-play, the incidence of hamstring injuries has not decreased.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>As hamstring strains most commonly occur during the eccentric phase of muscle action, rehabilitation should focus on eccentric muscle strengthening. The L-protocol and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise protocol strengthen the hamstring muscles eccentrically. They have been found to be effective in decreasing the incidence of new hamstring strains as well as the rate of recurrence. This commentary therefore aims to suggest changes to the return-to-play criteria following hamstring strains to prevent the seemingly unpreventable.</p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.assaf.org.za/sajsm/article/view/5143 Sacroiliac tuberculosis masquerading as mechanical lower back pain in a collegiate basketball athlete: a case presentation 2018-05-22T09:47:38+00:00 M Moyaert lstarling@live.co.za <p><strong>Background:</strong>Sacroiliac tuberculosis is a rare condition for which early diagnosis and effective management frequently proves challenging. This report describes a case that was initially overlooked due to its presentation and unreported constitutional symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong>To alert clinicians about skeletal tuberculosis, an often neglected diagnostic differential, which requires a high index of clinical suspicion, especially for patients from endemic areas.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>This patient’s presentation (sports injury) and unreported constitutional symptoms resulted in a delay in the diagnosis and initial institution of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Implications:</strong>This report illustrates the importance of specifically asking about constitutional symptoms, even in sports injury settings and being mindful of infectious diseases or other chronic medical conditions, which may masquerade as common sports injuries.</p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##