South African Journal of Sports Medicine <p>The&nbsp;<em>South African Journal of Sports Medicine (</em>S. Afr. j. sports med)&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles, reviews, commentaries, letters and case studies on topics related to the disciplines represented by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">South African Sports Medicine Association</a>. One volume is published a year with articles added as they are ready for publication.&nbsp;These disciplines include sports medicine, biokinetics, physiotherapy, exercise and sports science, dietetics and psychology. Material that is particularly unique and relevant to South Africa and its inhabitants are given preference; however, any other material of general interest and relevance will also be considered.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> South African Sports Medicine Association en-US South African Journal of Sports Medicine 1015-5163 <p>The South African Journal of Sports Medicine reserves copyright of the material published. The work is licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0) International</a> License. Material submitted for publication in theÂ&nbsp;South African Journal of Sports Medicine is accepted provided it has not been published elsewhere. TheÂ&nbsp;South African Journal of Sports Medicine does not hold itself responsible for statements made by the authors.</p> The state of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019 <p><strong>The state of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019</strong></p> Mike Lambert ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 31 1 1 1 10.17159/6055 Negative self-appraisal mediates the relationship between mindfulness and confidence among adolescent female provincial hockey players in South Africa <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Mounting evidence suggests that mindfulness is positively related to athletic performance and athlete wellbeing. However, few attempts have been made to uncover the psychological processes by which mindfulness might impact performance.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine whether negative self-appraisal mediates the relationship between mindfulness and the confidence component of mental toughness among provincial adolescent female hockey players.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Provincial adolescent female hockey players (N=486) completed measures of mindfulness, mental toughness-related confidence and negative self-appraisal. Correlation coefficients were calculated between all variables included in the study. An ordinary least-squares regression analysis was performed to test the indirect effect of negative self-appraisal on the relationship between mindfulness and confidence.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Negative self-appraisal exhibited an indirect effect on the relationship between mindfulness and the confidence component of mental toughness (<em>b</em> = .06, <em>SE</em> = .0, <em>CI</em><sub>95</sub> = .04, .09). A subsequent Soble test confirmed that negative self-appraisal served as a statistically significant mediator (<em>b</em> = .06, <em>SE</em> = .01, <em>Z</em> = 5.76, <em>p</em> = .001) in the model. Furthermore 78.3% of the variance in the effect of mindfulness on the confidence component of mental toughness was accounted for by negative self-appraisal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The effect of mindfulness on the confidence component of mental toughness among adolescent athletes is mediated by negative self-appraisal. Based on the current findings, mindfulness seems to foster confidence by lessening the impact of rigid negative appraisals of one’s performance and worth as an athlete.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> mindfulness, confidence, negative self-appraisal, mediation, adolescent female athlete</p> Stephen Walker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-27 2019-02-27 31 1 1 5 10.17159/4371 The lateral batting backlift technique: is it a contributing factor to success for professional cricket players at the highest level? <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Background: </strong>This study aimed primarily to investigate the lateral batting backlift technique (LBBT) among semi-professional, professional and current international cricket players. A key question was to investigate whether this technique is a factor that contributes to success for cricket players at the highest levels of the game.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The participants in this study’s sample (n = 130) were South African semi-professional players (SP) (n = 69), professional players (PP) (n = 49) and South African international professional players (SAI) (n = 12). Biomechanical and video analyses were performed on all the participating groups. Classifiers were utilised to identify the batting backlift technique type (BBTT) employed by all batsmen. All statistics and wagon wheels (scoring areas of the batsmen on a cricket field) were sourced online. A Pearson’s Chi-squared test, Student T-test, one-way analysis of variance and T-test were performed in this study. All analyses were performed using R (R Core Team) at a significance level of α = 0.05.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study found that a LBBT is more common at the highest levels of batsmanship with batsmen at the various levels of cricket having percentages of the LBBT as follows: SP = 37%; PP = 38%; SAI = 75%; p = 0.001. There was also a noticeably higher difference in the highest scores and career averages between all groups of players, as well as batsmen who either use a straight batting backlift technique (SBBT) or a LBBT. This study also found that SAI batsmen who used the LBBT were more proficient at scoring runs in various areas around the cricket field (according to the wagon wheel analysis).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found that a LBBT is a contributing factor for success regarding players wanting to play cricket at the highest levels. Cricket coaches should also pay attention to the direction of the backlift with players, especially when correlating it to various scoring areas on the cricket field. Further in-depth research is required to fully investigate the change in batting backlift techniques among cricket players over a long-term period.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> M Noorbhai T Noakes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 31 1 1 9 10.17159/5460 The impact of a fast bowling spell on physiological, perceptual and performance responses in non-elite cricketers <p><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><strong>Background: </strong>The demands placed on fast bowlers may elicit unique responses that contribute towards increased injury risk and comprised performance capabilities. Despite this, very few investigations have attempted to quantify these demands and their impact on performance in cricketers.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This investigation attempted to quantify the effects of a fast bowling protocol on the musculoskeletal, physiological and perceptual responses of fast bowlers; as well as ball speed and accuracy.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Eight young adult bowlers (20 ± 2 years) participated in a 10-over bowling protocol that had been separated by intermittent fielding drills into three bowling spells respectively (4-, 3- and 3- overs). Selected responses were collected throughout the protocol.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Functional strength was measured and showed no change. Heart rate responses increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) at the start of the bowling protocol. Local ratings of perceived exertion increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) as a function of exercise duration, while low to moderate intensities of perceived discomfort were noted in the anterior and posterior shoulder areas, upper portion of the lower limb musculature, as well as in the middle and lower back regions. Performance responses experienced no significant change.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was no significant change in ball release speed and accuracy across the bowling protocol. Lower limb muscle power remained consistent and heart rates reached a steady state after the first over. In comparison, local ratings of perceived effort and body discomfort increased over time, which could mean that those unchanged measures do not accurately reflect fatigue or that perceptions are a more effective indicator of impending fatigue.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>accuracy, speed, heart rate, body discomfort, ratings of perceived exertion<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> L Pote S Proctor K McEwan C Christie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 31 1 1 5 10.17159/5624 A tale of two sit-bones: The cyclist’s ischial hygroma (Perineal nodular induration) <p>The ischial hygroma or perineal nodular induration is a relatively rare and cycling specific injury that is often incorrectly diagnosed and managed. We highlight two cases with divergent managements to highlight the spectrum of treatment available to manage this rare condition. We describe the presentation, assessment and management of two cases of pernineal nodular induration.</p> <p>The management (surgical excision vs conservative management with saddle pressure mapping) highlight that there is no single optimal management and a multidisciplinary approach should be applied to treat these injuries successfully. Perineal nodular induration should be investigated appropriately to exclude less benign causes of perineal masses. Both conservative management and surgical excision can be successful. Clinicians should be familiar with assessment and management options for this relatively rare but debilitating condition in competitive cyclists.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Jeroen Swart Richard P De Villiers Roux Francois Frederik Jacobus Rademan George Thom ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 31 1 1 4 10.17159/5641