Tydskrif vir Letterkunde https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl <p>The&nbsp;Tydskrif vir Letterkunde (TL)&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal, published twice yearly by the <a href="http://www.letterkunde.up.ac.za/">Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Association</a>. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles, overviews, review articles, reviews, commentaries on African Literature and Literary Reviews in Afrikaans, Dutch, English and French.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Association en-US Tydskrif vir Letterkunde 0041-476X Intellectualisation of isiXhosa literature: the case of Jeff Opland https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/413 <p>The origins of the intellectualisation of written isiXhosa literature are often attributed to the missionaries John Ross and John Bennie. They set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley which later became known as Lovedale Press. They introduced written isiXhosa in 1823 and for this they are acknowledged as the first to write and publish in isiXhosa. This article attempts to trace this intellectualisation process of isiXhosa literature, concentrating on a critique and assessment of the life-long work of Professor Jeff Opland, who has contributed enormously to the present understanding of both oral and written isiXhosa literature. It is argued in this article that his corpus of books and academic articles require some contextualisation within the broader debate of the continued intellectualisation of isiXhosa language and literature. Reference is also made to the Opland isiXhosa literature archive and its contribution to the further intellectualisation of isiXhosa literature. It is suggested in this article that Opland is one of the greatest contributors to academic debates concerning isiXhosa literature and history. <em>Izibongo </em>or oral poems written by, and about Jeff Opland are analysed to further enhance the context of his contribution.</p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;"><br /></span></span></p> Russell Harold Kaschula ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 5 25 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.413 Breyten Breytenbachs poëzie in Raster https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/435 <p>From 1969 until 1972 the South-African writer and graphic artist Breyten Breytenbach published 29 poems, prose texts and three drawings in the Dutch experimental periodical <em>Raster</em>&nbsp;(first edition: 1967). H. C. ten Berge, writer, poet and <em>Raster'</em>s main editor, attributed Breytenbach an unusually prominentÂ&nbsp;position in his magazine. In the Dutch language area of the late sixties and early seventies, Breytenbach was mostly known for his political engagement within the anti-apartheid movement. Ten Berge, however, also praised his work for its formal and experimental aesthetic qualities. According to Ten Berge experiment and engagement are related to one another in a very unique way. By examining the position of Breytenbach in <em>Raster</em>, the paper presents a documentation of the exceptional literary relationship between Breytenbach and Ten Berge, as well as their shared interest in certain motifs in poetry, the use of a specific metaphoric language (e.g. perception of nature and body) and a common belief in the power of poetic language.</p> Camille Bourgeus Yves T'Sjoen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 26 41 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.435 Building the Islamic moral self: Sufi Abed’s Bustan Fatimah ma‘a Bustan ‘A’ishah https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1723 <p>Sufi Abed Mian Usmani (1898-1945) of Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal, authored some ten religious books in Urdu and Gujerati, which appeared to have a considerable impact on the local community there, as well as more broadly for South African Muslims of Indian descent, and even for some Muslims of India. However, apart from two academic contributions, his work and legacy remain largely unexplored. This essay aims to build upon those contributions by analysing another of his hitherto unexamined Urdu works, namely, Bustan Fatimah ma' Bustan 'A'ishah<em>&nbsp;</em>(The garden of Fatimahwith the garden of 'A'ishah). It argues that these two works, when seen as a totality, seek to build the moral self.</p> Yousuf Dadoo Mohammed Auwais Rafudeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 42 60 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1723 Urban orature and resistance: The case of Donny Elwood https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1229 <p>From their very origins, contemporary African artistic creations have been works of resistance. Born from the struggle against colonialism, these works continued in this trajectory when independence failed to deliver on the aspiration of the masses. Today's artists follow in the footsteps of their predecessors; resisting all forms of social injustice, economic inequality and political oppression that bedevil the post-independence arena. Using resistance aesthetics as critical tool of analysis, this paper seeks to examine the concept of resistance in the music of Donny Elwood. It aims at showing that urban orature, to which category Elwood's music belongs, is one of those sites in the postcolonial context where the struggle for liberation from all forms of oppression is continuously waged. The paper argues that, with its emphasis on sense and rhythm, and not dance, Elwood's music effectively communicates the artist's protest against socio-political contradictions in the postcolonial space while sensitizing the masses on the need for change. The discursive perspectives in his art reside in the interface between social interactions in the urban milieu and urban orature (witnessed in the blend of musical varieties, instruments and message). These effectively register his social commitment as an urban artist.</p> Eunice Ngongkum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 61 73 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1229 'n Kulturele entomologiese ondersoek na insekte in Willem Anker se Siegfried https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1314 <p>In this paper I investigate the function of the references to insects in Willem Anker's debut novel <em>Siegfried</em> (2007) from a cultural entomological perspective. My focus is on the character Wilhelm (Willem) Smit. Smit, a failed writer, gains his entomological knowledge from the books on insects that was left behind by the previous tenant of the house he rents on the farm of Jan Landman and his mentally disabled son Siegfried Landman. His engagement with insects goes beyond a scientific interest: he compares people and human society to insects and has a habit of eating insects. It therefore falls in the realm of cultural entomology. Since cultural entomology deals with the relationship between humans and insects, I furthermore tie my discussion to the field of Human-Animal Studies (HAS) in which the intertwinement of human and non-human animals is explored. I analyse the following three aspects in <em>Siegfried</em>: Smit's entomophagy (the eating of insects), Smit's general musings on the connection between humans and insects, and the comparison of the homeless people of Cape Town to insects in the novel. I investigate whether the portrayal of insect and human interaction is indicative of a posthuman interweavement or not. My conclusion is that Smit's consumption of insects is an act of desperation rather than a liberating intertwinement of human and animal. The comparison of humans to insects mainly relates to the negative perception of insects in Western culture and does not point to a posthuman transformation of human and animal.</p> Joan-Mari Barendse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 74 85 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1314 Re-imagining family and gender roles in Aminatta Forna's Ancestor Stones https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2772 <p class="Body">This paper examines the interplay between polygyny and gender by exploring the way in which family structure and gender roles are negotiated, imagined and exercised in fiction. Aminatta Forna's <em>Ancestor stones</em> (2006) is read in order to explore how the institution of polygyny changes over time and how it influences gender role negotiation. Using an African feminist approach, the paper juxtaposes the historical and contemporary institution of polygyny in relation to gender role negotiation and how contemporary writers build on their literary precursors in re-writing the history of polygyny and gender according to the socio-cultural needs of twenty-first century Africans. These changes in socio-cultural, economic and political spheres in Africa have played a pivotal role in altering family structure and arrangements. I therefore argue that the changes in familial structure and arrangement necessitate gender role negotiation.</p> Yunusy Castory Ng'umbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 86 99 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2772 Rape victims and victimisers in Herbstein's Ama, a Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1619 <p>This paper examines how Manu Herbstein employs his fictionalised neo-slave narrative entitled <em>Ama, a Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade</em> to address the issue of sexual violence against women and to foreground the trans-Atlantic rape identities of victims and victimisers in relation to race, gender, class and religion. An appraisal of Herbstein's representations within the framework of postcolonial theory reveals how Herbstein deviates from the stereotypical norm of narrating the rape of female captives and slaves during the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by creating graphic rape images in his narration. This study therefore shows that a postcolonial reading of Herbstein's novel addresses the representations of rape and male sexual aggression in literary discourse and contributes to the arguments on sexual violence against women from the past to the present.</p> Oluyomi Oduwobi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 100 111 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1619 Identity and the absent mother in Atta's Everything Good will Come https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1093 <p><em>Everything good will come</em> presents the trope of the absent mother which scholars have identified as a significant feature of third generation Nigerian women prose fiction writings. Besides the trope of the absent mother, religion and identity also feature prominently in Atta's <em>Everything good will come</em>. This article harmonises these three dominant motifs in the narrative towards an examination of the complexity of identity formation in <em>Everything good will come</em>. The article focuses on Mike's sculptures as an artistic depiction of the dynamics that ultimately influence Enitan's identity formation. Due to the plurality of religious ideologies in the postcolonial Nigeria depicted in the narrative, the motifs of Christianity and traditional religion present in the narrative are explored towards illumination of key elements of the text. Christian motifs provide deeper comprehension of the dynamics that influence the relationship of Enitan and Sheri against the backdrop of the trope of the absent mother. Victoria and Enitan's characters and experiences find parallels in the being and characteristics of Ala, the Earth Goddess and Obatala.</p> Sola Emmanuel Owonibi Olufunmilayo Gaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 112 121 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1093 Individualism and memory: Robert Frost and Tanure Ojaide https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1274 <p>This article examines individualism and memory in Robert Frost's <em>A boy's will </em>(1913) and Tanure Ojaide's <em>The beauty I have seen </em>(2010). The paper adopts existentialism as a critical approach. Previous studies on these poets, especially Ojaide, have neglected the individualistic nature of their poetry and stereotyped the poets. This article, thus, brings a new approach to the critical debates and scholarship on these poets. The aim of the article is to show the individualistic and existentialist nature of the poetry of Frost and Ojaide. In the analysis, individualism is examined at the level of form and content; starting with the use of the lyric form and poet-persona inclusion in the poems to the thematisation of gloom and the importance of memory, among others. The paper shows that, truly, these poets are largely individualistic in outlook, and they have expressed existentialist philosophy in their poetry.</p> Mathias Iroro Orhero ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 122 135 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1274 Tongues of their mothers: the language of writing https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/1796 <span><br id="tinymce" class="mceContentBody " /></span> Makhosazana Xaba Jenny Bozena Du Preez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 136 145 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.1796 Karel Schoeman (1939-2017) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2961 Hein Willemse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 148 151 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2961 Karel Schoeman (1939-2017) se dood: 'n Koue dag vir die letterkunde https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2935 Vasu Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 152 155 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2935 Karel Schoeman se skrywerskap en vroeër werk: ’n persoonlike perspektief https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2962 Renée Marais ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 156 159 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2962 Niemand op Rietvlei nie: ter nagedagtenis aan Karel Schoeman https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2731 Andries Bezuidenhout ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 160 162 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2731 Karel Schoeman en die kuns van sterwe https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2730 Cas Wepener ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 163 166 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2730 On m’appelle Nina (Antoinette Tidjani Alou) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2975 Marie Helene Koffi-Tessio ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 168 169 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2975 The Printmaker (Bronwyn Law-Viljoen) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2976 Pat Louw ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 169 171 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2976 Travels with My Father. An Autobiographical Novel (Karen Jennings) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2977 Bibi Burger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 172 174 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2977 Indigeneity, Globalization, and African Literature: Personally Speaking (Tanure Ojaide) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2978 Andy Carolin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 174 176 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2978 Natures of Africa. Ecocriticism and Animal Studies in Contemporary Cultural Forms (Fiona Moolla) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2979 Julia Martin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 177 180 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2979 Losing the Plot. Crime, Reality and Fiction in Postapartheid Writing (Leon de Kock) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2980 Sam Naidu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 180 182 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2980 Learning Zulu: A secret history of language in South Africa (Mark Sanders) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2981 Dan Wylie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 182 186 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2981 Post mortem (Pieter Fourie) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2912 Johan Coetser ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 186 188 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2912 Die Bram Fischer Wals (Harry Kalmer) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2982 Jacomien van Niekerk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 188 190 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2982 Die aarde is ’n eierblou ark (Susan Smith) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2983 Marni Bonthuys ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 190 192 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2983 Alles het niet kom wôd (Nathan Trantraal) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2984 Henning J Pieterse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 192 194 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2984 Sulamiet (Lina Spies) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2985 Cas Wepener ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 194 197 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2985 As in die mond (Nicole Jaekel Stauss) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2974 Johan Anker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 197 199 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2974 Die formidabele Ling Ho (Johan Kruger) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2986 Dewald Koen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 199 200 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2986 Lugkasteel (Annelie Botes) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2987 Ruchelle Lombard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 201 202 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2987 Perspektief en profiel: ’n Afrikaanse literatuurgeskiedenis (H. P. van Coller) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2988 Desmond Painter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 203 206 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2988 Hitler, Verwoerd, Mandela and Me (Marianne Thamm) https://journals.assaf.org.za/tvl/article/view/2989 Christi van der Westhuizen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 54 2 206 208 10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.54i2.2989