South Africans offering Foreign Military Assistance Abroad: How real is the Risk of Domestic Prosecution?

  • Shannon Joy Bosch UKZN
Keywords: foreign military assistance, private security, domestic prosecution, ISIS

Abstract

This article discusses the efficacy of the existing Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act 15 of 1998, and the proposed Prohibition of Mercenary Activities and Regulation of Certain Activities in the Country of Armed Conflict Act 27 of 2006, in regulating the private security industry and prosecuting those in contravention of the legislation. It discusses the motivations behind recent attempts to deny the citizenship of South African nationals who had taken up employment abroad in the private security industry. The article gives some guidance regarding the likelihood of prosecution for the new school of South African fighters taking up arms for foreign causes like ISIS, the IDF, and Nigeria.

 

Google_Scholar20.png  ScienceOpen_Log03431019.png

 

Author Biography

Shannon Joy Bosch, UKZN
BA (Hons) LLB (University of Natal) LLM (Cambridge) PhD (UKZN). Associate Professor in Law, Howard College School of Law, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban; Attorney of the High Court of South Africa.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Literature

Allison Daily Maverick

Allison S “Exclusive: Is this the first South African fighting for the ISIS?” Daily Maverick (22 February 2015) http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2015-02-22-exclusive-is-this-the-first-south-african-fighting-for-the-isis/#.wbmtlpn94du accessed 29 November 2016

Anonymous BBC News

Anonymous “Etienne Kabila charged in South Africa for DR Congo plot” BBC News (12 February 2013) http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-21432981 accessed 29 November 2016

Anonymous News24

Anonymous “South Africans return home from ISIS-held territory” News24 (11 September 2015) http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/South-Africans-return-home-from-ISIS-held-territory-20150911 accessed 27 October 2016

Anonymous The Guardian

Anonymous “South Africa to quit international criminal court” The Guardian (21 October 2016) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/oct/21/south-africa-to-quit-international-criminal-court-document-shows accessed 3 December 2016

Asmal Mail and Guardian

Asmal F “Gaza conflict: For some, war is where the heart is” Mail and Guardian (8 Aug 2014) http://mg.co.za/article/2014-08-07-gaza-conflict-for-some-war-is-where-the-heart-is accessed 29 November 2016

Avant The Market for Force

Avant D The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security (Cambridge University Press New York 2005)

Bosch and Maritz 2011 PER

Bosch S and Maritz M “South African Private Security Contractors Active in Armed Conflicts” 2011 PER 108-125

Bosch, Maritz and Kimble “Mercenaries or Legitimate Actors”

Bosch S, Maritz M and Kimble M “Mercenaries or Legitimate Actors” in Schaub G and Kelty R (eds) Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior (Rowman and Littlefield London 2016) 47-74

Brooks 2000 International Peacekeeping

Brooks D “Messiahs or Mercenaries? The Future of International Private Military Services” 2000 International Peacekeeping 129-144

Corke Eyewitness News

Corke E “Investigations continue into how SA girl almost joined ISIS” (7 April 2015) Eyewitness News http://ewn.co.za/2015/04/07/Online-activity-alerted-authorities-on-Isis-bound-teen accessed 29 November 2016

Cottle The Voice of the Cape

Cottle E “Will the ANC government ever prosecute South Africans serving in the Israeli Defence Force?” The Voice of the Cape (21 April 2015) http://www.vocfm.co.za/will-the-anc-govt-ever-prosecute-s-africans-serving-in-the-idf/ accessed 29 November 2016

Crook 2013 AJIL

Crook J “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law” 2013 AJIL 207-251

DeWinter-Schmitt 2014 PSM

DeWinter-Schmitt R “A new twist to management standards, bringing in human rights” 2014 PSM (Summer) http://psm.du.edu/commentary/index.html accessed 29 November 2016

Fabricius Independent Online (12 April 2015)

Fabricius P “SANDF ‘mercenaries’ turning tide in Nigeria” Independent Online (12 April 2015) http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/sadf-mercenaries-turning-tide-in-nigeria-1843796 accessed 29 November 2016

Fabricius Independent Online (24 February 2015)

Fabricius R 2015 Strange chapter in SA-Congo saga ends (24 February 2015) http://www.iol.co.za/the-star/strange-chapter-in-sa-congo-saga-ends-1823026 accessed 29 November 2016

Franklin 2008 Transnat’l L and Contemp Probs

Franklin S “South African and International Attempts to Regulate Mercenaries and Private Military Companies” 2008 Transnat’l L and Contemp Probs 239-264

Freedman The Telegraph

Freeman C “South African mercenaries’ secret war on Boko Haram” The Telegraph (10 May 2015) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/nigeria/11596210/South-African-mercenaries-secret-war-on-Boko-Haram.html accessed 29 November 2015

Gabor “Remarks by Gabor Rona”

Gabor R (2013) “Remarks by Gabor Rona UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries” at Montreux Conference (11-13 December)

Gaston 2008 Harv Int’l L J

Gaston E “Mercenarism 2.0? The Rise of the Modern Private Security Industry and its Implications for International Humanitarian Law Enforcement” 2008 Harv Int’l L J 221-248

Gomez del Prado WISC

Gomez del Prado JL “Mercenaries, Private Military and Security Companies and International Law” 2008 WISC www.law.wisc.edu/gls/documents/gomez_del_prado_paper.doc accessed 29 November 2016

Gumedze Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa

Gumedze S (ed) Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa: A need for a new continental approach (Institute for Security Studies Pretoria 2008)

Hartleb News24

Hartleb T “Cape Town teen girl pulled off flight was trying to join ISIS” News24 (6 April 2015) http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Cape-Town-teen-girl-pulled-off-flight-was-trying-to-join-ISIS accessed 29 November 2016

Hodge Slate

Hodge N “Army for Hire” (2006) Slate (August) http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/foreigners/2006/08/army_for_hire.html accessed 29 November 2016

Holmqvist 2005 SIPRI

Holmqvist C “Private Security Companies: The Case for Regulation” 2005 SIPRI (Policy Paper 9 January) 1-60

HRC Annual Report of the Working Group

HRC Annual Report of the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries as a Means of Violating Human Rights and Impeding the Exercise of the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination A/HRC/15/25 (2 July 2010)

ICRC Montreux Document

ICRC Montreux Document (2009) https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0996.pdf accessed 29 November 2016

Jacobs 2008 Strateg Rev S Afr

Jacobs P ″South Africa’s new counter-mercenary law″ 2008 Strateg Rev S Afr 1-17

LSSA Submission before the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Home Affairs

LSSA Submission before the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Home Affairs Re: Submissions by the Law Society of South Africa in Re: SA Citizenship Amendment Bill 2010 http://pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/docs/100817pchomelssa_0.pdf accessed 29 November 2016

Makhubu Independent Online

Makhubu N “Five DRC ‘rebels’ freed” Independent Online (21 February 2015) http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/five-drc-rebels-freed-1821749 accessed 29 November 2016

Manby Citizenship Law in Africa

Manby B Citizenship Law in Africa: A Comparative Study 2nd ed (Open Society Foundations New York 2010)

Messner “Working Towards Effective Legislative and Regulatory Solutions”

Messner J “Working Towards Effective Legislative and Regulatory Solutions” in Gumedze S (ed) Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa: A need for a new continental approach (Institute for Security Studies Pretoria 2008) 145-178

O’Brien 2000 Royal United Service Institute Journal

O’Brien K “PMCs, Myths and Mercenaries” 2000 Royal United Service Institute Journal https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/173-sovereign/30555-pmcs-myths-and-mercenaries.html 59 accessed 29 November 2016

Ortiz “Regulating Private Military Companies”

Ortiz C “Regulating Private Military Companies: States and the Expanding Business of Commercial Security Provision” in Assassi L, Wigan D and Van der Pijl K (eds) Global Regulation: Managing Crises after the Imperial Turn (Macmillan Basingstoke 2004) 177-190

Perrin Modern Warfare

Perrin B Modern Warfare: Armed Groups, Private Militaries, Humanitarian Organizations, and the Law (University of British Columbia Press Vancouver 2012)

Potgieter and Patel Daily Maverick

Potgieter DW and Patel K “Congo rebels, a Kabila family affair?” Daily Maverick (11 February 2013) http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2013-02-11-congo-rebels-a-kabila-family-affair/#.WD0rlpN97fY accessed 29 November 2016

Pretorius News24

Pretorius W “Police were exercising their right by arresting Thulsie twins – prosecutor” News24 (4 August 2016) http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/police-were-exercising-their-right-by-arresting-thulsie-twins-prosecutor-20160804 accessed 29 November 2016

Roberts The Wonga Coup

Roberts A The Wonga Coup: Simon Mann's Plot to Seize Oil Billions in Africa (Profile Books London 2009)

SAPA Independent Online (11 August 2014)

SAPA “DRC coup plot trial continues” Independent Online (11 August 2014) http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/drc-coup-plot-trial-continues-1733776 accessed 29 November 2016

SAPA Independent Online (29 January 2015)

SAPA “Arrest SA ‘mercenaries’, says defence boss” IOL News (29 Jan 2015) http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/arrest-sa-mercenaries-says-defence-boss-1810571 accessed 29 November 2016

Smith The Guardian

Smith D “South Africa’s ageing white mercenaries who helped turn tide on Boko Haram” Mail and Guardian (14 April 2015) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/14/south-africas-ageing-white-mercenaries-who-helped-turn-tide-on-boko-haram accessed 29 November 2016

Schreier and Caparini 2005 DCAF

Schreier F and Caparini M “Privatising security” 2005 DCAF (Occasional Paper 6) 107-108

Singer 2006 BJWA

Singer P 2006 “Humanitarian Principles, Private Military Agents: Some Implications of the Privatized Military Industry for the Humanitarian Community” 2006 BJWA 205-121

Taljaard "Implementing South Africa’s Regulation of Foreign Military

Assistance Act"

Taljaard R "Implementing South Africa’s Regulation of Foreign Military

Assistance Act" in Bryden A and Caparini M (eds) Private Actors and Security Governance (Transactions Publishers London 2006) chapter 9

Walker and Whyte 2005 ICLQ

Walker C and Whyte D “Contracting Out War? Private Military Companies, Law and Regulation in the United Kingdom” 2005 ICLQ 651-689

Wallis and Manson Financial Times

Wallis W and Manson K “Africa’s soldiers of fortune join fight against Boko Haram” Financial Times (26 March 2015) https://www.ft.com/content/4cda876e-d2e8-11e4-a792-00144feab7de accessed 29 November 2016

York The Globe and Mail

York G “Nigeria hires mercenaries to fight Boko Haram in election push” The Globe and Mail (12 March 2015) http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/nigeria-hires-mercenaries-to-fight-boko-haram/article23442385/ accessed 29 November 2016

Legislation

South Africa:

Prohibition of Mercenary Activities and Regulation of Certain Activities in the Country of Armed Conflict Act 27 of 2006

Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act 15 of 1998

South Africa Citizenship Act 88 of 1995

South Africa Citizenship Amendment Act 2010 (GG 33356 of 5 July 2010)

United Kingdom:

FCO 2001-2002 HC 557

FCO 2009 Consultation on Promoting High Standards of Conduct by PMSCs Internationally

United States:

Arms Export Control Act

Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act 2007

Public Law 106-523

Uniform Code of Military Justice US Code Title 10 Subtitle A Part II Chapter 47

International instruments

OHCHR Draft Convention on Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) A/HRC/15/25 (5 July 2010) http://www2. ohchr.org/english/issues/mercenaries/docs/A.HRC.15.25.pdf accessed 30 October 2016

OHCHR UN Working Group on Mercenaries to Launch Study on the Use of Private Military and Security Companies by the UN (18 March 2013) http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=13154&LangID=E accessed 29 November 2016

UN General Assembly International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries (UN Mercenary Convention) 1989 A/RES/44/34 http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/44/a44r034.htm accessed 29 November 2016

Government publications

Security and Constitutional Affairs Select Committee Report Prohibition of Mercenary Activities and Regulation of Certain Activities in Countries of Armed Conflict Bill [B42B-2005] Parliamentary Monitoring Group (7 Sept 2006) https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/7298/ accessed 29 November 2016

South African Defence Review 2012 http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/defence%20review_daft.pdf accessed 29 November 2016

South African Defence Review 2015 http://www.dod.mil.za/documents/defencereview/Defence%20Review%202015.pdf accessed 29 November 2016

Internet sources

Barlow date unknown

http://eebenbarlowsmilitaryandsecurityblog.blogspot.co.za/

Barlow E date unknown Eeben Barlow's Military and Security Blog

http://eebenbarlowsmilitaryandsecurityblog.blogspot.co.za/ accessed 29 November 2016

Barlow email response to Bosch, Maritz and Kimble “Mercenaries or Legitimate Actors”

Barlow E email response to Bosch S, Maritz M and Kimble M “Mercenaries or Legitimate Actors” in Schaub G and Kelty R (eds) Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior (Rowman and Littlefield London 2016) Chapter 2 (email on file with author)

defenceWeb 2010 http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9204:SouthAfrica-to-strip-soldiers-abroad-of-citizenship&catid=54:Governance&Itemid=118

defenceWeb 2010 SA to strip soldiers abroad of citizenship?

http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9204:SouthAfrica-to-strip-soldiers-abroad-of-citizenship&catid=54:Governance&Itemid=118 accessed 29 November 2016

Gumede 2009 http://www.issafrica.org/publications/papers/addressing-the-use-of-private-security-and-military-companies-at-the-international-level

Gumedze S 2009 Addressing the use of private security and military companies at the international level http://www.issafrica.org/publications/papers/addressing-the-use-of-private-security-and-military-companies-at-the-international-level accessed 29 November 2016

Gumede 2012 https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/the-need-for-an-international-code-of-conduct-for-private-security-actors-in-africa

Gumedze S 2012 In the absence of a legally binding instrument for private security actors, the need for the implementation of the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers in Africa cannot be gainsaid https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/the-need-for-an-international-code-of-conduct-for-private-security-actors-in-africa accessed 29 November 2016

ICOCA 2010 www.icoc-psp.org

ICOCA International Code of Conduct Association 2010 www.icoc-psp.org accessed 29 November 2016

ISO 2015 http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=63380

ISO 2015 ISO 18788:2015 Management system for private security operations - Requirements with guidance for use

http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=63380 accessed 29 November 2016

ISS 2015 https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/are-south-africans-soft-targets-for-isis-recruitment

ISS 2015 Alarming reports of ISIS recruiting in South Africa raises urgent questions about government's response to such threats https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/are-south-africans-soft-targets-for-isis-recruitment accessed 29 November 2016

US State Department Committee on Armed Services 2010 https://fas.org/irp/congress/2010_rpt/sasc-psc.pdf

US State Department Committee on Armed Services US Senate 2010 Inquiry into the Role and Oversight of Private Security Contractors https://fas.org/irp/congress/2010_rpt/sasc-psc.pdf accessed 15 January 2017.

Published
2018-04-11
How to Cite
Bosch, S. J. (2018). South Africans offering Foreign Military Assistance Abroad: How real is the Risk of Domestic Prosecution?. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 21, 1-28. https://doi.org/10.17159/1727-3781/2018/v21i0a1721
Section
Articles