Commercial Appropriation of a Person's Image: Wells V Atoll Media (Pty) Ltd (Unreported 11961/2006) 2009 ZAWCHC 173 (9 November 2009)

  • Steve Cornelius University of Pretoria
Keywords: Identity, image rights, publicity rights, personality rights, delict, tort

Abstract

Our modern society has become transfixed with celebrity. Business people and marketers also endeavour to cash in on the popularity enjoyed by the stars and realise the value of associating merchandise or trademarks with the rich and famous. This leads to difficulties when the attributes of a person are apparently used without consent, which poses new questions to the law: should the law protect the individual against the unlawful use of his or her image? If so, to what extent should such protection be granted? These were some of the questions which the court had to answer in Wells v Atoll Media (Pty). The judgment in Wellshas redefined the right to identity and provided some clarity on what the infringement of that right would amount to. When the attributes of a person are used without consent, the right to identity can be violated in one of four ways. A person's right to identity can be infringed upon if the attributes of that person are used without permission in a way which cannot be reconciled with the true image of the individual concerned, if the use amounts to the commercial exploitation of the individual, if it cannot be reconciled with generally accepted norms of decency, or if it violates the privacy of that person.

    

References

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Foster-Milburn Co v Chinn 120 SW 364
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Gee v CBS Inc 612 F 2d 572
Gilham v Burlington Northern Inc 514 F 2d 660
Grütter v Lombard 2007 4 SA 89 (SCA)
Haelan Laboratories Inc v Topps Chewing Gum 202 F 2d 866
Haith v Model Cities Health Corp 704 SW 2d 684
Harlow v Buno Co 36 Pa D&C 101
Hirsch v SC Johnson and Sons Inc 280 NW 2d 129
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Martin Luther King Jr Center for Social Change Inc v American Heritage Products Inc 296 SE 2d 697
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Myskina v Conde Nast Publications Inc 386 F Supp 2d 409
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Wells v Atoll Media (Pty) Ltd (unreported 11961/2006) [2009] ZAWCHC 173 (9 November 2009)
Zim v Western Publishing Co 573 F 2d 1318

Register of legislation

Auteurswet 1912 (Netherlands)
California Civil Code Section 3344
Florida Statutes Section 540.08
Illinois Right of Publicity Act 765 ILCS 1075
Kentucky Statutes Section 391.170
Nebraska Revised Statutes Section 20-202
Nevada Revised Statutes Section 597-770
New York Civil Rights Act 1964
Oklahoma Statutes Section 1449
Tennessee Code Section 47-25-1101
Texas Property Code Section 26.001
Utah Code Section 76-9-407
Wisconsin Statutes Section 895.50
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2017-06-06
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