Detrimental orofacial manifestations of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever clinical case series, review of the causes, complications, and vaccine strategies




Dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever, oral manifestations, dengue vaccines


It is estimated that there are about 10% of cases that involve oral mucosa in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (HF), and even less number of cases in dengue fever (DF) has been reported. This leads to a lack of future investigation. Aims and objectives
This review intends to enhance the understanding of the epidemiology, clinical features involving the oral manifestations, and treatment of dengue disease. Design and Methods Several search engines, including PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO), and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) websites were utilized for the literature search using the terms dengue and dengue shock syndrome.Results Dengue is a major arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Its presentation is protean and varies from an
undifferentiated viral syndrome to viral HF and severe shock. The early diagnosis of the oral manifestations, hemorrhagic, or mucocutaneous, may lead to timely clinical evaluation of the patient with signs and symptoms suggestive of dengue viral infection.
Conclusion The specific therapy for dengue infections is still undiscovered. Proper care, including vector control and prevention of mosquito bites, may be beneficial. However, the role of dental professionals and general practitioners is important in identifying the oral manifestations of dengue viral infection and providing specific diagnosis and effective treatment to the patients.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Halstead SB. Dengue. Lancet 2007; 370:1644-52. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61687-0

Mackenzie JS, Gubler DJ, Petersen LR. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis. West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat Med 2004; 10:S98–S109. DOI: 10.1038/nm1144

Edelman R. Dengue vaccines approach the finish line. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious. Dis Soc Am 2007; 45:S56–S60. DOI: 10.1086/518148

Fernandes CI, Perez LE, Perez DE. Uncommon oral manifestations of dengue viral infection. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2020; 86:S3–S5. bjorl.2016.10.001.

Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever; its history and resurgence as a global public health problem. In: Gubler DJ, Kuno G, eds. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. London: CAB International, 1997: 1–22.

Halstead SB. Is there an in apparent dengue explosion? Lancet 1999; 353:1100-1. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)76460-6

Guerdan B. Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 2010; 7:51-53.

Template for Placing Diseases or Conditions Under National Surveillance, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Revised 2008, page 12.

Khan S, Gupta ND, Maheshwari S. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013; 17:520–2. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.118328

Indurkar MS, Sethi R. An unusual case of osteonecrosis of jaw associated with dengue fever and periodontitis. Aust Dent J 2015; 61:113–19. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12308

Vaughn DW, Greene S. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. In: Strickland GJ, eds. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WB. Saunders and Co, 2000: 240-5.

Park K. Dengue Syndrome. In: Park K, eds. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. Jabalpur: M/s. Banarsias Bhanot, 2000; 186-9.

WHO. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. 2nd ed: Geneva, 1997. resources/publications/dengue/Denguepublication/en/

National Institute of Communicable Diseases. Investigation and Control of Outbreaks: Dengue and Dengue hemorrhagic fever, July 1997.

Chugh SK, Yadava SK. Dengue hemorrhagic fever. In: Panja M, eds. Medicine Update Proceedings of Scientific Sessions,

APICON. Association of Physicians of India, 2001; 315-9. RESEARCH < 463

Murrell S, Wu SC, Butler M. Review of dengue virus and the development of a vaccine. Biotechnol Adv 2011; 29:239–47. 10.1016/ j.biotechadv.2010.11.008

Gubler DJ, Casta-Velez A. A program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Bull Pan Am Health Org 1991; 25:237–47.

Rigau-Perez JG, Gubler DJ. Surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In: Gubler DJ, Kono G, eds. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. London: CAB International, 1997; 405–23


Gubler DJ, Suharyono W, Sumarmo, Wulur H, Jahja E, J Sulianti Saroso. Virological surveillance for dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia using the mosquito inoculation technique. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1979; 57:931-6. PMID: 43776 PMCID: PMC2395842

Gubler DJ. Aedes aegypti and Aedes aegypti -borne disease control in the 1990s: top down or bottom up. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989; 40: 571–8. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1989.40.571

Newton EAC, Rieter P. A model of the transmission of dengue fever with an evolution of the impact of ultralow volume (ULV) insecticide application on dengue epidemics. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1992; 47:709–20. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1992.47.709




How to Cite

Dutta, S. R. ., & Sing, . P. . (2021). Detrimental orofacial manifestations of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever clinical case series, review of the causes, complications, and vaccine strategies. South African Dental Journal, 76(08), 457–464.