Assessing the antibacterial properties of eggshell-titanium powder


  • Stanley C Onwubu Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa
  • Mokgadi Ursula Mokgobole Somatology, Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa
  • Phumlane Selby Mdluli Chemistry, Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa
  • Thabang Hendrica Mokhothu Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa.



Antibacterial; eggshell; Mechanochemical; titanium dioxide


The global distribution of oral diseases caused by bacterial and the severity of their consequences constitute a pandemic condition.
The present paper reports on the antibacterial properties of a modified eggshell and titanium dioxide using the mechanochemical method. EB@TiO2 was modified and characterized using X-raydiffraction (XRD) while the degradation condition was
studied using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The inhibitory properties of EB@TiO2at differentconcentrations (2:1; 3:1 and 4: 1) against both Grampositive (E. coli) and negative bacterial (B. Cereus)strain were studied the using disk diffusion method.
The XRD result confirmed the presence of a thermodynamically stable calcite structure, which is indicative of calcium carbonate. The diffraction peak of the XRD at 2θ = 29.5o suggests the deposition of TiO2 on the surface of CaCo3. TGA curves shows the decomposition of anatase form of titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate. The study evidently shows the antibacterial activities of EB@TiO2 against Escherichia coli and B. Cereus. The salient feature of the study finding is that modifying eggshells with titanium dioxide improves the antibacterial properties, and thus offers a promising role for the development of potent d


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Author Biography

Thabang Hendrica Mokhothu, Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa.



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How to Cite

Onwubu, S. C., Mokgobole, M. U., Mdluli, P. S., & Mokhothu, T. H. (2022). Assessing the antibacterial properties of eggshell-titanium powder. South African Dental Journal, 77(08), 483–488.

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