The prevalence and associations of radiographic diagnostic signs indicating possible pre-eruptive canine ectopia: The results of a mixed dentition radiographic survey



ectopically, angulation


Maxillary canine ectopia is an anomaly of the mixed dentition which can and should be diagnosed early and treated interceptively wherever possible. Various radiographic markers have been associated with canine ectopia, and these are significant aids to a thorough clinical examination, in order to diagnose ectopia. A cross sectional study was carried out on a sample of 465
mixed dentition panoramic radiographs in order to establish the prevalence of maxillary canine ectopia according to a
set of radiographic markers. The sample of radiographs included patients with dental ages between 10 and 12 years of age. 404 radiographs displayed signs of canine ectopia according to the markers studied. Non- resorption of the root of the primary canine was the most common marker (63%) found. This was followed by overlap in 25.2% of cases, whilst increased angulation of the developing canine was the least prevalent (4.7%). Non-resorption showed a statistically significant association with distal overlap and overlap over the pulp chamber. Increased angulation was significantly associated with non-resorption in all degrees of overlap. Unilateral increased size of the mandibular canine showed a significant association with cases displaying a mesial overlap (p= 0.027). Dental age is an important aspect of predicting canine ectopia. Non-resorption of the roots of the primary canine must be viewed with caution at the dental age of 10 years. Enlargement of the mandibular canine maybe viewed as a potential early warning sign for maxillary canine ectopia.


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How to Cite

Hudson, A., Johan, L., Harris, A., & Mohamed, N. (2023). The prevalence and associations of radiographic diagnostic signs indicating possible pre-eruptive canine ectopia: The results of a mixed dentition radiographic survey. South African Dental Journal, 78(01), 17–22. Retrieved from