Factors that affected the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal treatment carried out by postgraduate periodontology students





Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Non-surgical Periodontal therapy., Treatment efficacy, Treatment outcome, Postgraduate Students, Tygerberg Dental Hospital., Influential factors.


The training of postgraduate students in periodontology has a significant clinical impact. The overall assessment of the efficacy of non-surgical treatment of periodontitis, has value to inform training protocols as well as assess the quality of clinical service delivery. Furthermore, obstacles to successful treatment can be identified. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal treatment, as well as the factors that may determine treatment outcome at the postgraduate clinic in the Periodontology Department at the University of the Western Cape, Tygerberg Dental Hospital, between 2016 and 2018. A cross-sectional record-based study of 100 patients was conducted. Demographic, social, clinical, treatment data were obtained from the hospital files. Periodontal parameters including bleeding index (BI), Pocket Probing depth (PPD), Plaque index (PI), and clinical attachment level (CAL), were recorded at the initial visit (Pre-treatment) and follow-up visits (Post-treatment), and the final treatment outcomes were calculated based on the differences of these parameters’ values between the initial visit and the last follow-up visit. Data were presented as mean and range for continuous variables and as a frequency for categorical variables. Statistical analyses were performed to determine if there was a relationship between the varied factors and treatment outcome with p < 0.05 as statistically significant. The results showed that all 100 patients demonstrated a marked reduction in PPD, PI, BI, and loss of CAL. The overall mean PPD reduction was 0.32 (0.5), the mean reduction in PI and BI were 37.2 (24.08) and 34.61 (22.78), respectively, and the mean clinical attachment gain was 0.42 (0.97) mm. Treatment outcome showed no difference in PPD, PI, BI, and CAL between females, smokers, and
patients with systemic conditions compared to males, non-smokers, and patients without systemic conditions. On the other hand, patients who underwent more maintenance treatment visits over a period longer than 2 months duration had significantly better outcomes compared to patients who had less than two months of duration of treatment. This study proved the effectiveness of the non-surgical surgical periodontal treatment at the postgraduate periodontal clinic. Treatment duration and frequency of recall visits were the most influential factor impacting the treatment outcome.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

A Jeftha, Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry. University of the Western Cape.


Kassebaum NJ, Bernabé E, Dahiya M, Bhandari B, Murray CJ, Marcenes W. Global burden of severe periodontitis in 1990.2010: a systematic review and meta. regression. Journal of dental research. 2014 Nov;93(11):1045.53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034514552491

Frencken JE, Sharma P, Stenhouse L, Green D, Laverty D, Dietrich T. Global epidemiology of dental caries and severe periodontitis–a comprehensive review. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2017 Mar;44: S94.105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12677

Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. International journal of health sciences. 2017 Apr;11(2):72.

Tonetti MS, Jepsen S, Jin L, Otomo-Corgel J. Impact of the global burden of periodontal diseases on health, nutrition and wellbeing of mankind: A call for global action. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2017 May;44(5):456.62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12732

Caton JG, Armitage G, Berglundh T, Chapple IL, Jepsen S, Kornman KS, Mealey BL, Papapanou PN, Sanz M, Tonetti MS. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions–Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. Journal of periodontology. 2018 Jun;89:S1.8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/JPER.18-0157

Beck JD, Papapanou PN, Philips KH, Offenbacher S. Periodontal medicine: 100 years of progress. Journal of dental research. 2019 Sep;98(10):1053.62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034519846113

Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. International journal of health sciences. 2017 Apr;11(2):72.

Mariotti A, Hefti AF. Defining periodontal health. BMC oral health. 2015 Dec;15(1):1.8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-15-S1-S6

Azouni KG, Tarakji B. The trimeric model: A new model of periodontal treatment planning. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR. 2014 Jul;8(7):ZE17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/8458.4623

Proctor E, Silmere H, Raghavan R, Hovmand P, Aarons G, Bunger A, Griffey R, Hensley M. Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2011 Mar 1;38(2):65.76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-010-0319-7

Walter C, Rodriguez FR, Taner B, Hecker H, Weiger R. Association of tobacco use and periapical pathosis–a systematic review. International endodontic journal. 2012 Dec;45(12):1065.73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02072.x

Van der Velden U, Sanz M. Postgraduate periodontal education. Scope, competences, proficiencies and learning outcomes: Consensus report of the 1st European workshop on periodontal education–position paper 3 and consensus view 3. European Journal of Dental Education. 2010 May; 14:34.40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2010.00622.x

Sanz I, Alonso B, Carasol M, Herrera D, Sanz M. Nonsurgical treatment of periodontitis. Journal of Evidence.Based Dental Practice. 2012 Sep 1;12(3):76.86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1532-3382(12)70019-2

Jiao J, Shi D, Cao ZQ, Meng HX, Lu RF, Zhang L, Song Y, Zhao JR. Effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal therapy in a large Chinese population with chronic periodontitis. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2017 Jan;44(1):42.50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12637

Cobb CM. Non-surgical pocket therapy: Mechanical. Annals of periodontology. 1996 Nov;1(1):443.90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1902/annals.1996.1.1.443

Strauss, S.M. and Stefanou, L.B. Interdental cleaning among persons with diabetes: relationships with individual characteristics. International journal of dental hygiene.2014; 12(2), pp.127.132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/idh.12037

Gautam, D.K., Jindal, V., Gupta, S.C., Tuli, A., Kotwal, B., and Thakur, R. Effect of cigarette smoking on the periodontal health status: A comparative, cross.sectional study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology.2011;15(4), p.383 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-124X.92575

Petrovic, M., Kesic, L., Obradovic, R., Savic, Z., Mihailovic, D., Obradovic, I., Avdic.Saracevic, M., Janjic.Trickovic, O., and Janjic, M.. Comparative analysis of smoking influence on periodontal tissue in subjects with periodontal disease. Materia socio.medica. 2013; 25(3), p.196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2013.25.196-198

Haffajee, A.D. and Socransky, S.S. Relationship of cigarette smoking to attachment level profiles. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2001;28(4), pp.283-295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028004283.x

Engström, S., Gahnberg, L., Högberg, H., and Svärdsudd, K.. Association between high blood pressure and deep periodontal pockets. Upsala journal of medical sciences. 2007;112(1), pp.95.103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/2000-1967-099

Botero, J.E., Yepes, F.L., Roldán, N., Castrillón, C.A., Hincapie, J.P., Ochoa, S.P., Ospina, C.A., Becerra, M.A., Jaramillo, A., Gutierrez, S.J., and Contreras, A. Tooth and periodontal clinical attachment loss are associated with hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Journal of periodontology. 2012;83(10), pp.1245.1250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2012.110681

Soskolne WA, Proskin HM, Stabholz A. Probing depth changes following 2 years of periodontal maintenance therapy including adjunctive controlled release of chlorhexidine. Journal of periodontology. 2003 Apr;74(4):420.7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2003.74.4.420

Müller Campanile V, Megally A, Campanile G, Gayet-Ageron A, Giannopoulou C, Mombelli A. Risk factors for recurrence of periodontal disease in patients in maintenance care in a private practice. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2019 Sep;46(9):918-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13165

Carvalho VF, Okuda OS, Bernardo CC, Pannuti CM, Georgetti MA, De Micheli G, Pustiglioni FE. Compliance improvement in periodontal maintenance. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2010 Jun;18(3):215.9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572010000300003

Oliveira Costa F, Miranda Cota LO, Pereira Lages EJ, Medeiros Lorentz TC, Soares Dutra Oliveira AM, Dutra Oliveira PA, Costa JE. Progression of periodontitis in a sample of regular and irregular compliers under maintenance therapy: a 3-year follow-up study. Journal of periodontology. 2011 Sep;82(9):1279-87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2011.100664




How to Cite

Abdalla, M., Peck, M., Rayner, C., Kimmie-Dhansay, F., & Jeftha, A. (2023). Factors that affected the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal treatment carried out by postgraduate periodontology students . South African Dental Journal, 78(03), 126–129. https://doi.org/10.17159/sadj.v78i03.16276