Bacterial contamination of disinfectants: prevalence and students’ compliance with infection control practices

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/sadj.v79i01.16718

Keywords:

biofilm-derived, saliva ejector

Abstract

Contaminated disinfectants have been occasional vehicles of healthcare associated infections. To determine the presence and level of bacterial contamination of disinfectants used to decontaminate suction devices and to assess the extent to which students comply with infection control practices. A two-part cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of microbiological testing of disinfectants and a questionnaire based observation of students Unannounced observation of students disinfecting suction devices were recorded using a questionnaire. The process involved collecting a prepared disinfectant from a storage bin using a kitchen measuring jug. Specimens of disinfectants and swabs of jugs were collected for aerobic culture. Data pertaining to compliance with infection control practices was gathered. Only 33.6% of the students were observed unannounced. An overwhelming majority (84.9%) of students disinfected suction devices; 52% cleaned and disinfected the external surface of suction hoses and the spittoon bowl; 18.6% allowed the disinfectant to remain in the system long enough, and 14% advised their patients not to close their lips around the suction device. The majority of disinfectant samples (56.3%) as well jugs (55.6%) were contaminated with bacteria. Bacterial contamination of disinfectants was common in addition to poor compliance with infection control practices.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

SR Mthethwa, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa




References

Irek EO, Amupitan AA, Aboderin AO, Obadare TO. A systematic review of healthcare associated infections in Africa: An antimicrobial resistance perspective. Afr J Lab Med 2018; 7(2): 1-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v7i2.796

O’Donnell MJ, Tuttlebee CM, Falkiner FR, Coleman DC. Bacterial contamination of dental chair units in a modern dental hospital caused by leakage from suction system hoses containing extensive biofilm. J Hosp Infect 2005; 59(4):348-60 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2004.10.001

Nagraj SK, Eachempati P, Paisi M, Nasser M, Sivaramakrishnan G, Verbeek JH. Interventions to reduce contaminated aerosols produced during dental procedures for preventing infectious diseases. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev 2020: 10(10): CD013686 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013686.pub2

Jacks ME. A laboratory comparison of evacuation devices on aerosol reduction. J Dent Hyg 2002; 76(3):202-6

Remington WD, Ott BC, Hartka TR. Effectiveness of barrier devices, high-volume evacuators, and extraoral suction devices on reducing dental aerosols for the dental operator: A pilot study. J Am Dent Assoc 2022; 153(4):309-18 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2021.08.011

Samaranayake LP, Fakhruddin KS, Buranawat B, Panduwawala C. The efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing procedures used in dentistry: a systematic review. Acta Odontol Scand 2021; 79(1):69-80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2020.1839673

Avasthi, A. High Volume Evacuator (HVE) in reducing aerosol - An exploration worth by clinicians. J. Dent. Health Oral Disord Ther 2018; 9(3):165-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/jdhodt.2018.09.00371

CDC. Saliva Ejector and Backflow. Available https://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/infectioncontrol/faqs/ saliva.html Accessed [03 July 2023]

ISO 17664-1:2021. Processing of health care products – Information to be provided by the medical device manufacturer for the processing of medical devices – Part 1: Critical and semi-critical medical devices. https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/en/#iso:std:iso:17664:-1:ed-1:v1:en Accessed [03 July 2023]

DiGangi P. On stage with evacuation lines: Safety guidance for dental hygienists. Available: https://www.dentistryiq.com/dental-hygiene/clinical-hygiene/article/16367742/on-stage-with-evacuation-lines-safety-guidance-for-dental hygienists Accessed [03 July 2023]

Oie S, Kamiya A. Microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectant. Am. J. Infect Control 1996; 24:389-95 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90027-9

Boyle MA, O’Donnell MJ, Russel RJ, Galvin N, Swan J, Coleman DC. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection. J Dent. 2015; 43:1268-79 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2015.07.018

Lompo P, Heroes A-S, Agbobli E, et al. Bacterial Contamination of Antiseptics, Disinfectants and Hand Hygiene Products in Healthcare Facilities in High-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Hygiene 2023; 3(2):136-75 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene3020012

Lompo P, Agbobli E, Heroes A-S, et al. Bacterial Contamination of Antiseptics, Disinfectants, and Hand Hygiene Products Used in Healthcare Settings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A Systematic Review. Hygiene 2023; 3(2):93-124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene3020010

Rutala WA, Weber DJ, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol /guidelines. Accessed [14 February 2020]

Kajanahareutai S, Rahule S, Sirikulsatein P, Sangkasuwan S, Yospol P. Efficacy and contamination of in-use disinfectants in Rajavithi General Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 1995; 78 Suppl 1: S36-9

Randall LP, Cooles SW, Piddock LJ,Woodward MJ. Effect of triclosan or a phenolic farm disinfectant on the selection of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica. J. Antimicrob. Chemother 2004; 54: 621-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkh376

Danchaivijitr S, Dhiraputra C, Rongrungruang Y, Srihapol N, Pumsuwan V. Microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88 Suppl 10: S133-9

Bible JE, Biswas D, Whang PG, Simpson AK, Grauer JN. Which regions of the operating gown should be considered most sterile? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2009; 467(3):825-30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-008-0341-1

Engelkirk PG, Duben-Engelkirk J. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Essentials of Diagnostic Microbiology. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Quick Observation Tools (QUOTs) for Infection Prevention, 2019. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/tools/quots.html Accessed [05 March 2019]

Christensen EA, Jepsen OB, Kristensen H, Steen G. In-use tests of disinfectants. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B 1982; 90(2):95-100 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1699-0463.1982.tb00088.x

Gajadhar T, Lara A, Sealy P, Adesiyun AA. Microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in four major hospitals in Trinidad. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2003; 14(3):193-200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892003000800006

Keah KC, Jegathesan M, Tan SC, et al. Bacterial contamination of hospital disinfectants. Med J Malaysia 1995; 50(4):291-7

Olayemi AB, Obayan Y. Contaminated disinfectants in health clinics in Ilorin, Nigeria. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994; 15(9):581-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/646986

Larson EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995; 23(4):251-69 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0196-6553(95)90070-5

Setlow B, Loshon CA, Genest PC, Cowan AE, Setlow C, Setlow P. Mechanisms of killing spores of Bacillus subtilis by acid, alkali and ethanol. J Appl Microbiol 2002; 92(2):362-75 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01540.x

Russell AD. Bacterial resistance to disinfectants: present knowledge and future problems. J Hosp Infect 1999; 43 Suppl: S57-68 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(99)90066-X

Bassett DC, Stokes KJ, Thomas WR. Wound infection with Pseudomonas multivorans. A water-borne contaminant of disinfectant solutions. Lancet 1970; 1(7658):1188-91 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(70)91783-6

Kgabi, SP. Bacterial Contamination of Disinfectants and Antiseptics at Medunsa Oral Health Centre [Master’s Thesis]. Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. 2015

Williams AN, MacLea KS. Draft Genome Sequence of Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis TSA37, Isolated from Wood Ash. Microbiol Resour Announc 2019; 8(50): e01370-19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01370-19

Kandi V, Palange P, Vaish R, et al. Emerging bacterial infection: identification and clinical significance of Kocuria species. Cureus 2016; 8(8): e731 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.731

Shah R, Collins JM, Hodge TM, Laing ER. A national study of cross infection control: “are we clean enough?”. Br Dent J 2009; 207(6):267-74 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.824

Boyce JM. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2016; 5:10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-016-0111-x

Xtremexccessories.1 x 15-gram chlorine disinfectant cleaner powder with detergents & corrosion inhibitors (15g makes 5l of disinfectant). Available: https://xtremexccessories.co.za/products/15-gram-chlorine-disinfectant-cleaner-powder with-detergents-corrosion-inhibitors-15g-makes-5l-of-disinfectant [Accessed 24 August 2022]

Deulkar S, Singh S, Tiwari D. Isolation of selected possible aerobic bacterial pathogens from dental environmental surfaces after use of disinfectants – A case study at a public dental clinic, in KwaZulu-Natal. SADJ 2020; 75(5): 241-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17159/2519-0105/2020/v75no5a2

Watson CM, Whitehouse RLS. Possibility of cross-contamination between dental patients by means of the saliva ejector. J Am Dent Assn 1993; 124:77-80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1993.0080

Mann GLB, Campbell TL, Crawford JJ. Backflow in low-volume suction lines: The impact of pressure changes. J Am Dent Assn 1996; 127: 611-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1996.0273

Barbeau J, ten Bokum L, Gauthier C, Prevost AP. Cross-contamination potential of saliva ejectors used in dentistry. J Hosp Infect 1998; 40: 303-11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(98)90308-5

Downloads

Published

2024-03-06

How to Cite

Madzivani, N., Mthethwa, S., & Sekati, E. (2024). Bacterial contamination of disinfectants: prevalence and students’ compliance with infection control practices. South African Dental Journal, 79(01), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.17159/sadj.v79i01.16718