The Myth of Objectivity: Implicit Racial Bias and the Law (Part 2)

  • Willem Hendrik Gravett University of Pretoria Faculty of Law
Keywords: Racial bias, Implicit racial bias, Racism, Implicit Association Test, Prosecutorial Discretion, Judicial Decision-making

Abstract

The centrality of race to our history and the substantial racial inequalities that continue to pervade society ensure that "race" remains an extraordinarily salient and meaningful social category.  Explicit racial prejudice, however, is only part of the problem.  Equally important - and likely more pervasive - is the phenomenon of implicit racial prejudice: the cognitive processes whereby, despite even our best intentions, the human mind automatically classifies information in racial categories and against disfavoured social groups. Empirical research shows convincingly that these biases against socially disfavoured groups are (i) pervasive; (ii) often diverge from consciously reported attitudes and beliefs; and (iii) influence consequential behaviour towards the subjects of these biases. The existence of implicit racial prejudices poses a challenge to legal theory and practice. From the standpoint of a legal system that seeks to forbid differential treatment based upon race or other protected traits, if people are in fact treated differently, and worse, because of their race or other protected trait, then the fundamental principle of anti-discrimination has been violated. It hardly matters that the source of the differential treatment is implicit rather than conscious bias. This article investigates the relevance of this research to the law by means of an empirical account of how implicit racial bias could affect the criminal trial trajectory in the areas of policing, prosecutorial discretion and judicial decision-making.  It is the author's hypothesis that this mostly American research also applies to South Africa. The empirical evidence of implicit biases in every country tested shows that people are systematically implicitly biased in favour of socially privileged groups. Even after 1994 South Africa – similar to the US – continues to be characterised by a pronounced social hierarchy in which Whites overwhelmingly have the highest social status. The author argues that the law should normatively take cognizance of this issue.  After all, the mere fact that we may not be aware of, much less consciously intend, race-contingent behaviour does not magically erase the harm. The article concludes by addressing the question of the appropriate response of the law and legal role players to the problem of implicit racial bias.

 

Google_Scholar_77.png  ScienceOpen_Log0315.png

Author Biography

Willem Hendrik Gravett, University of Pretoria Faculty of Law

Senior Lecturer, Department of Procedural Law

References

Bibliography

Literature

Ben-Shahar and Schneider 2011 U Pa L Rev
Ben-Shahar O and Schneider CE "The Failure of Mandated Disclosure" 2011 U Pa L Rev 647-749

Ben-Shahar and Schneider Failure of Mandated Disclosure
Ben-Shahar O and Schneider CE More Than You Wanted to Know: The Failure of Mandated Disclosure (Princeton University Press Princeton 2014)

Boraine "Reform of Administration Orders"
Boraine A "The Reform of Administration Orders Within a New Consumer Credit Framework" in Kelly-Louw M, Nehf JP and Rott P (eds) The Future of Consumer Credit Regulation: Creative Approaches to Emerging Problems (Routledge Oxford 2008) 187-216

Donnely and White "Effect of Information Based Consumer Protection"
Donnely M and White F "The Effect of Information Based Consumer Protection: Lessons from a Study of the Irish Online Market" in Twigg-Flesner C et al (eds) The Yearbook of Consumer Law 2007 (Ashgate Aldershot 2008) 271-296

DTI Consumer Credit Law Reform
Department of Trade and Industry Consumer Credit Law Reform: Policy Framework for Consumer Credit (DTI Pretoria 2004) (this document is no longer available on the DTI's website)
DTI Market Research Report
Department of Trade and Industry A Market Research Report: Credit Law Review (DTI Pretoria 2002) (this document is no longer available on the DTI's website)

Grové and Otto Consumer Credit Law
Grové NJ and Otto JM Principles of Consumer Credit Law 2nd ed (Juta Cape Town 2002)

Kelly-Louw 2008 SA Merc LJ
Kelly-Louw M "The Prevention and Alleviation of Consumer Over-indebtedness" 2008 SA Merc LJ 200-226

Kelly-Louw Consumer Credit Regulation
Kelly-Louw M (with contributions by Stoop PN) Consumer Credit Regulation in South Africa (Juta Cape Town 2012)

Naudé 2006 Stell LR
Naudé T "Unfair Contract Terms Legislation: The Implications of Why We Need It for Its Formulation and Application" 2006 Stell LR 361-385

Otto National Credit Act
Otto JM The National Credit Act Explained (LexisNexis Durban 2006)

Otto 2010 Fundamina
Otto JM "The History of Consumer Credit Legislation in South Africa" 2010 Fundamina 257-273

Otto 2014 THRHR
Otto JM "A Consumer's Right to Plain Language and to be Informed in an Official Language that He Understands as Required by The National Credit Act: Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd v Dlamini 2013 1 SA 219 (KZD)" 2014 THRHR 155-164

Paterson 2003 MULR
Paterson J "The Australian Unfair Contract Terms Law: The Rise of Substantive Unfairness as a Ground for Review of Standard Form Consumer Contracts" 2003 MULR 934-956

Pearson "Financial Literacy"
Pearson G "Financial Literacy and the Creation of Financial Citizens" in Kelly-Louw M, Nehf JP and Rott P (eds) The Future of Consumer Credit Regulation: Creative Approaches to Emerging Problems (Routledge Oxford 2008) 3-27

Renke and Roestoff 2005 THRHR
Renke S and Roestoff M "The Consumer Credit Bill – A Solution to Over-indebtedness?" 2005 THRHR 115-121

Roestoff and Renke 2003 Obiter
Roestoff M and Renke S "Solving the Problems of Overspending Individuals" 2003 Obiter 1-26

Roestoff and Renke 2005 Obiter
Roestoff M and Renke S "Debt Relief for Consumers – The Interaction Between Insolvency and Consumer Protection
Legislation (Part 1)" 2005 Obiter 561-574

SALC Working Paper 46, Project 67
South African Law Commission Working Paper 46, Project 67: The Usury Act and Related Matters (SACL Pretoria 1993)

Schulze 1997(1) SA Merc LJ
Schulze WG "The Origin and Legal Nature of the Stokvel (Part 1)" 1997 SA Merc LJ 18-29

Schulze 1997(2) SA Merc LJ
Schulze WG "The Origin and Legal Nature of the Stokvel (Part 2)" 1997 SA Merc LJ 153-170

Stoop 2009 SA Merc LJ
Stoop PN "South African Consumer Credit Policy: Measures Indirectly Aimed at Preventing Over-Indebtedness" 2009 SA Merc LJ 365-386

Thaler and Sunstein Improving Decisions
Thaler RH and Sunstein CR Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health Wealth and Happiness (Yale University Press New Haven 2009)

Willemse and Mxunyelwa Report for the Purposes of the Credit Law Review
Willemse R and Mxunyelwa N Report Prepared by Hofmeyr Herbstein and Gihwala for Purposes of the Credit Law Review (Dec 2002) (Department of Trade and Industry Pretoria 2004)

Williams 2007 Law and Policy
Williams T "Empowerment of Whom and for What? Financial Literacy Education and the New Regulation of Consumer Financial Services" 2007 Law and Policy 226-256

Willis 2008 Iowa L Rev
Willis L "Against Financial Literacy Education" 2008 Iowa L Rev 197-285

Willis 2009 San Diego L Rev
Willis L "Evidence and Ideology in Assessing the Effectiveness of Financial Literacy Education" 2009 San Diego L Rev 415-458

Wilson "Responsible Lending or Restrictive Lending Practices?"
Wilson T "Responsible Lending or Restrictive Lending Practices? Balancing Concerns Regarding Over-indebtedness with Addressing Financial Exclusion" in Kelly-Louw M, Nehf JP and Rott P (eds) The Future of Consumer Credit Regulation: Creative Approaches to Emerging Problems (Routledge Oxford 2008) 91-106

Wilson 2012 UNSWLJ
Wilson T "Consumer Credit Legislation and Rights-based Social Justice: Addressing Financial Exclusion and Meeting the Credit Needs of Low-income Australians" 2012 UNSWLJ 501-521

Woker 2010 Obiter
Woker T "Why the Need for Consumer Protection Legislation? A Look at Some of the Reasons Behind the Promulgation of the National Credit Act and the Consumer Protection Act" 2010 Obiter 217-231

Legislation

Australia

Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act, 2001 (Cth)

Corporations Act, 2001 (Cth)

Insurance Contracts Act, 1984 (Cth)

South Africa

Banks Act 94 of 1990

Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment Act 53 of 2003

Credit Agreements Act 75 of 1980 (repealed)

Financial Sector Regulation Bill 34 of 2015

Financial Services Board Act 97 of 1990

Long-Term Insurance Act 52 of 1998

National Credit Act 34 of 2005

National Credit Amendment Act 19 of 2014

Short-Term Insurance Act 53 of 1998

Usury Act 73 of 1968 (repealed)

Government publications

Gen N 997 in GG 35914 of 26 November 2012
GN 749 in GG 39127 of 21 August 2015
Proc 22 in GG 28824 of 11 May 2006
Internet sources

ANZ 2011 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/media/465153/2011-adult-financial-literacy-full.pdf
Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited 2011 Survey of Adult Financial Literacy in Australia http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/media/
465153/2011-adult-financial-literacy-full.pdf accessed 25 July 2016

ANZ 2015 http://www.anz.com/resources/3/1/31cbc1fd-9491-4a22-91dc-4c803e4c34ab/adult-financial-literacy-survey-full-results.pdf
Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited 2015 ANZ Survey of Adult Financial Literacy in Australia http://www.anz.com/resources/
3/1/31cbc1fd-9491-4a22-91dc-4c803e4c34ab/adult-financial-literacy-survey-full-results.pdf accessed 1 April 2016

ASIC 2011 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/media/218312/national-financial-literacy-strategy.pdf
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2011 Report 229: National Financial Literacy Strategy http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/
media/218312/national-financial-literacy-strategy.pdf accessed 19 July 2016

ASIC 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 National Financial Literacy Strategy http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/ accessed 19 July 2016

ASIC 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/news/2016
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 News Articles from 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/news/2016 accessed 19 July 2016

ASIC 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/supporters/business-and-industry
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 Business and Industry http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/supporters/business-and-industry accessed 19 July 2016

ASIC 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/research-and-evaluation/
international-research-and-evaluation
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 International Research and Evaluation http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/research-and-evaluation/international-research-and-evaluation accessed 19 July 2016

ASIC 2016 https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/?referrer=understanding
money.gov.au
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 Free and Impartial Financial Guidance and Tools You Can Trust https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/?referrer=understandingmoney.gov.au accessed 1 April 2016

ASIC 2016 https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/borrowing-and-credit/credit-cards/credit-card-debt-clock
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 Credit Card Debt Clock https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/borrowing-and-credit/credit-cards/
credit-card-debt-clock accessed 1 April 2016

ASIC 2016 https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/teaching
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 Teaching https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/teaching accessed 21 May 2016

ASIC 2016 https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/tools-and-resources/calculators-and-apps/budget-planner
Australian Securities and Investment Commission 2016 Budget Planner https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/tools-and-resources/calculators-and-apps/budget-planner accessed 2 August 2016

Australian Government 2004 http://www.cfltaskforce.treasury.gov.au/
content/releases.asp?NavID=3
Australian Government 2004 Press Releases http://www.cfltaskforce.treasury.gov.au/content/releases.asp?NavID=3 accessed 1 April 2016

Australian Government 2014 http://asic.gov.au/regulatory-resources/find-a-document/reports/rep-403-national-financial-literacy-strategy-2014-17/
Australian Government 2014 ASIC Report 403 National Financial Literacy Strategy http://asic.gov.au/regulatory-resources/find-a-document/reports/
rep-403-national-financial-literacy-strategy-2014-17/ accessed 26 April 2016

Australian Government 2014 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/media/
546585/report-403_national-financial-literacy-strategy-2014-17.pdf
Australian Government 2014 ASIC Report 403 National Financial Literacy Strategy 2014-2017: Action Plan http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/
media/546585/report-403_national-financial-literacy-strategy-2014-17.pdf accessed 26 April 2016

BASA date unknown http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview
Banking Association South Africa date unknown Financial Inclusion Overview http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview accessed 6 May 2016
BASA 2004 http://www.banking.org.za/docs/default-source/default-document-library/financial-sector-charter.pdf?sfvrsn=10
Banking Association South Africa 2004 Financial Sector Charter http://www.banking.org.za/docs/default-source/default-document-library/financial-sector-charter.pdf?sfvrsn=10 accessed 10 May 2016

BASA 2012 http://www.banking.org.za/consumer-information/legislation/
code-of-banking-practice
Banking Association South Africa 2012 Code of Banking Practice http://www.banking.org.za/consumer-information/legislation/code-of-banking-practice accessed 1 April 2016

BASA 2016 http://www.banking.org.za/news-media/association-news/women-and-finance
Banking Association South Africa 2016 Women and Finance http://www.banking.org.za/news-media/association-news/women-and-finance accessed 26 July 2016

BASA 2016 http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/corporate-citizenship
/financial-literacy
Banking Association South Africa 2016 Financial Literacy http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/corporate-citizenship/financial-literacy accessed 6 May 2016

BASA 2016 http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview
Banking Association South Africa 2016 Financial Inclusion Overview http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview accessed 6 May 2016
BASA 2016 http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview/fi-definition
Banking Association South Africa 2016 What is Financial Inclusion http://www.banking.org.za/what-we-do/overview/fi-definition accessed 6 May 2016

Beckitt 2012 http://www.saia.co.za/info-center/saia-documents/publications
/consumer-information/ddsf.pdf
Beckitt D 2012 It's All About the Promise… - Consumer Education Booklet http://www.saia.co.za/info-center/saia-documents/publications/consumer-information/ddsf.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

BusinessTech 2012 http://businesstech.co.za/news/banking/25527/south-africas-banking-population-revealed/
BusinessTech 2012 South Africa's Banked Population Revealed http://businesstech.co.za/news/banking/25527/south-africas-banking-population-revealed/ 6 May 2016

CommonwealthBank 2016 https://www.commbank.com.au/about-us/in-the-community/understanding-money/commonwealth-bank-foundation/financial-literacy-teaching-resources/financial-literacy-grant.html
CommonwealthBank 2016 Financial Literacy Grants https://www.commbank.com.au/about-us/in-the-community/understanding-money/commonwealth-bank-foundation/financial-literacy-teaching-resources/financial-literacy-grant.html accessed 1 April 2016

CommonwealthBank 2016 https://www.commbank.com.au/about-us/who-we-are/in-the-community/financial-education.html
CommonwealthBank 2016 Financial Education https://www.comm
bank.com.au/about-us/who-we-are/in-the-community/financial-education.html accessed 1 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2009 http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/senate/
committee/corporations_ctte/fps/report/report.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia 2009 Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services Inquiry into financial products and services in Australia (Ripoll Report) http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/senate/committee/corporations_ctte/fps/report/report.pdf accessed 26 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2011 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/
media/218309/financial-literacy-and-behavioural-change.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia 2011 ASIC Report 230 Financial Literacy and Behavioural Change http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/media/218309/
financial-literacy-and-behavioural-change.pdf accessed 26 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2014 http://www.fsi.gov.au/files/2014/07/
FSI_Report_Final_Reduced20140715.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia 2014 Financial System Inquiry Interim Report http://www.fsi.gov.au/files/2014/07/FSI_Report_Final_Reduced20140715.pdf accessed 26 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2014 http://fsi.gov.au/publications/
Commonwealth of Australia 2014 Financial System Inquiry Final Report (Murray Report) http://fsi.gov.au/publications/ accessed 26 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2014 http://fsi.gov.au/publications/interim-report/
Commonwealth of Australia 2014 Financial System Inquiry Interim Report http://fsi.gov.au/publications/interim-report/ accessed 26 April 2016

Commonwealth of Australia 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/
research-and-evaluation/financial-attitudes-and-behaviour-tracker
Commonwealth of Australia 2016 ASIC Report 481: Australian Financial Attitudes and Behaviour Tracker Wave 4 September 2015 – February 2016 http://www.financialliteracy.gov.au/research-and-evaluation/financial-attitudes-and-behaviour-tracker accessed 26 April 2016

Cover 2013 http://www.cover.co.za/news/10-years-on-the-financial-sector-code-launched
Cover 2013 10 Years On ... The Financial Sector Code Launched http://www.cover.co.za/news/10-years-on-the-financial-sector-code-launched accessed 6 May 2016

FCA 2014 http://www.financialcounsellingaustralia.org.au/Corporate/
News/14-of-Australians-won't-understand-this-press-rele
Financial Counselling Australia 2014 14% of Australians Won't Understand this Press Release, 22% Will Struggle With the Numbers In It http://www.financialcounsellingaustralia.org.au/Corporate/News/14-of-Australians-won't-understand-this-press-rele accessed 1 April 2016

Finmark Trust 2005 http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads
/2016/01/Note_finLit_SA_2005.pdf
Finmark Trust 2005 Preliminary Principles for Expanding Consumer Financial Literacy in South Africa http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Note_finLit_SA_2005.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2013 http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/
2016/01/financial-education-toolkit-unabridged.pdf
Finmark Trust 2013 Financial Eductaion Toolkit http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/financial-education-toolkit-unabridged.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2014 http://www.banking.org.za/docs/default-source/financial-inclusion/finscope/finscope-sa-2014.pdf
Finmark Trust 2014 Finscope South Africa 2014 http://www.banking.org.za/docs/default-source/financial-inclusion/finscope/finscope-sa-2014.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/
Finmark Trust 2016 Finmark Trust http://www.finmark.org.za/ accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/?s=financial+literacy
Finmark Trust 2016 Financial Literacy http://www.finmark.org.za/
?s=financial+literacy accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/finscope-surveys/
Finmark Trust 2016 FinScope Surveys http://www.finmark.org.za/finscope-surveys/ accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/what-we-do/financial-inclusion/financial-literacy/
Finmark Trust 2016 Financial Education Toolkit http://www.finmark.org.za/what-we-do/financial-inclusion/financial-literacy/ accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/
2015/11/PRES_FSSA2015_Consumersurvey_Launch.pdf
Finmark Trust 2016 Finscope South Africa 2015 Consumer Survey Launch Presentation http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/PRES
_FSSA2015_Consumersurvey_Launch.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

Finmark Trust 2016 http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/
03/Broch_FinScopeSA2015_Consumersurvey_FNL.pdf
Finmark Trust 2016 Finscope South Africa 2015 http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Broch_FinScopeSA2015_Consumersurvey_FNL.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

FOS 2014 http://fsi.gov.au/files/2014/04/Financial_Ombudsman_Service_
attachment_1.pdf
Financial Ombudsman Service 2014 Financial System Inquiry

Financial Ombudsman Service Submission http://fsi.gov.au/files/2014/04/
Financial_Ombudsman_Service_attachment_1.pdf accessed 19 July 2016

FOS 2014 https://www.fos.org.au/custom/files/docs/fos-submission-to-shaping-a-national-financial-literacy-strategy-for-201416.pdf
Financial Ombudsman Service 2014 National Financia Literacy Strategy –Consultation Paper https://www.fos.org.au/custom/files/docs/fos-submission-to-shaping-a-national-financial-literacy-strategy-for-201416.pdf accessed 19 July 2016

FSB 2012 https://www.fsb.co.za/Departments/consumerEducation/Docu
ments/Financial%20Literacy%20Booklet%202012.pdf
Financial Services Board 2012 Financial Literacy in South Africa: Results of National Baseline Survey 2012 https://www.fsb.co.za/Departments/consumerEducation/DocumentsFinancial%20Literacy%20Booklet%202012.pdf accessed 26 June 2016

FSB 2013 https://www.fsb.co.za/Departments/communications/Docu
ments/FSB%20Annual%20Report%202013.pdf
Financial Services Board 2013 2013 Annual Report https://www.fsb.co.za/Departments/communications/Documents/FSB%20Annual%20Report%202013.pdf accessed 23 June 2016

FSB 2014 https://www.fsb.co.za/NewsLibrary/FSB%20Annual%20Report
%202014.pdf
Financial Services Board 2014 2014 Annual Report https://www.fsb.co.za/NewsLibrary/FSB%20Annual%20Report%202014.pdf accessed 23 June 2016

INSOL 2001 https://www.insol.org/pdf/consdebt.pdf
INSOL 2001 International Consumer Debt Report – Report of Findings and Recommendations https://www.insol.org/pdf/consdebt.pdf accessed 1 April 2016

Investopedia 2016 http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/financial-literacy.asp
Investopedia 2016 Financial Literacy http://www.investopedia.com/terms/
f/financial-literacy.asp accessed 26 April 2016

Lusardi and Mitchell 2013 http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=129675
Lusardi A and Mitchell O 2013 The Economic Importance of Financial Literacy: Theory and Evidence http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=129675 accessed 23 June 2016

MoneyMinded date unknown http://www.moneyminded.com.au/?
page_id=350
MoneyMinded date unknown About http://www.moneyminded.com.au/
?page_id=350 accessed 1 April 2016

NCR 2007 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/Annual%20Reports/
NCR%20ANNUAL%20REPORT%202007.pdf

National Credit Regulator 2007 Annual Report 2007 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/Annual%20Reports/NCR%20ANNUAL%20REPORT%202007.pdf accessed 1 April 2016
NCR 2012 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/research-reports/jun13/NCR_NCA%20IMPACT%20LITERATURE%20REVIEW_FINAL%20REPORT_260612.pdf

National Credit Regulator 2012 Literature Review on the Impact of the National Credit Act (NCA) Has Had on South Africa's Credit Market (Final Report) http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/research-reports/jun13/
NCR_NCA%20IMPACT%20LITERATURE%20REVIEW_FINAL%20REPORT_260612.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

NCR 2013 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/research-reports/july13/NCR%20Outcomes%20evaluation%20of%20educational%20workshops.pdf
National Credit Regulator 2013 Outcomes Evaluation of Educational Workshops and Media Campaigns of the NCR RFP No

NCR139/01/13 (Final Report) http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/research-reports/july13/NCR%20Outcomes%20evaluation%20of%20educational%20workshops.pdf accessed 6 May 2016
NCR 2015 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/Annual%20Reports/

NCR%20ANNUAL%20REPORT%202014-15.pdf
National Credit Regulator 2015 Annual Report 2014-15 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/Annual%20Reports/NCR%20ANNUAL%20REPORT%202014-15.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

NCR 2016 http://www.ncr.org.za
National Credit Regulator 2016 National Credit Regulator http://www.ncr.org.za accessed 6 May 2016.

Nelson Mandela Foundation 2016 http://www.mandeladay.com/
Nelson Mandela Foundation 2016 Mandela Day http://www.mandeladay.com/ accessed 6 May 2016

OECD 2014 http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/guidelines-private-not-for-profit-financial-education.pdf
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2014 OECD/INFE Guidelines for Private and Not for Profit Stakeholders in Financial Education http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/guide
lines-private-not-for-profit-financial-education.pdf accessed 19 July 2016

OECD 2015 http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/national-strategies-for-financial-education-policy-handbook.htm
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 National Strategies for Financial Education OECD/INFE Policy Handbook http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/national-strategies-for-financial-education-policy-handbook.htm accessed 19 July 2016

OECD INFE 2011 https://www.oecd.org/finance/financial-education/49319977.pdf
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development International Network on Financial Education 2011 Measuring Financial Literacy Questionnaire and Guidance Notes for Conducting an Internationally Comparable Survey of Financial Literacy https://www.oecd.org/finance/financial-education/49319977.pdf accessed 19 July 2016

Rudo Research and Training 2002 http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/
pages/background_documents/Summary%20of%20Findings.pdf
Rudo Research and Training 2002 A Market Research Report: Credit Law Review http://www.ncr.org.za/documents/pages/background_documents/
Summary%20of%20Findings.pdf accessed 6 May 2016

Starsaver 2016 http://starsaver.co.za/
Starsaver 2016 Financial Literacy for South Africa http://starsaver.co.za/ accessed26 July 2016

Statistics South Africa 2016 http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=7965
Statistics South Africa 2016 Media Release: Quarterly Employment Statistics (QES), First Quarter 2016 http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=7965 accessed 6 May 2016

Struwig, Roberts and Gordon 2013 http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-outputs/view/6780
Struwig J, Roberts B and Gordon S 2013 Financial Literacy in South Africa: Results of a 2012 National Survey Update http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-outputs/view/6780 accessed 23 June 2016

Tracker 2016 http://www.tracker.co.za/Pages/About%20Us/CSI/MenInThe
Making.aspx
Tracker 2016 Men in the Making http://www.tracker.co.za/
Pages/About%20Us/CSI/MenInTheMaking.aspx accessed 6 May 2016

UNCDF 2016 http://www.uncdf.org/en
United Nations Capital Development Fund 2016 United Nations Capital Development Fund http://www.uncdf.org/en accessed 6 May 2016.

Wikipedia 2016 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_literacy
Wikipedia 2016 Financial Literacy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_
literacy accessed 26 April 2016
Views
  • Abstract 366
  • PDF 44
  • XML 15
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2017-09-14
Section
Articles