South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the Arsenal of Existing Law to Combat Human Trafficking

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/1727-3781/2012/v15i1a2466

Keywords:

, Combating human trafficking, human trafficking, prosecution of human trafficking, South African counter-trafficking, anti-trafficking legislation, trafficking in persons

Abstract

Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not enacted the required comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation. The question that now arises is if the absence of such anti-trafficking legislation poses an insurmountable obstacle to the prosecution of traffickers for trafficking-related activities. In asking this question the article examines the utilisation of existing crimes in order to prosecute and punish criminal activities committed during the human trafficking process. Firstly, a selection of existing common law and statutory crimes that may often be applicable to trafficking-related activities is mapped out. Secondly, transitional trafficking provisions in the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 are discussed. Finally, since the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill B7 of 2010 will in all probability be enacted in the near future, the use of other criminal law provisions in human trafficking prosecutions, even after the passing of this bill into law, is reflected upon.

  

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Bibliography

Allain 2011 Med L Rev

Allain J "Trafficking of persons for the removal of organs and the admission of guilt of a South African hospital" 2011 Med L Rev 117-122

Bales Global Slavery

Bales K Understanding Global Slavery (University of California Press Los Angeles 2005)

Bales and Robbins 2001 Human Rights Review

Bales K and Robbins PT "No one shall be held in slavery or servitude: a critical analysis of international slavery agreements and concepts of slavery" 2001 Human Rights Review 18-45

Bassiouni International Crimes

Bassiouni MC International Crimes: Digest/Index of International Instruments 1815-1985 – Volume 1 (Oceana Publications New York 1986)

Bassiouni 1990/1991 NYUJ Int'l Law & Pol

Bassiouni MC "Enslavement as an international crime" 1990/1991 NYUJ Int'l Law & Pol 445-517

Boezaart Child Law

Boezaart T (ed) Child Law in South Africa (Juta Claremont 2009)

Bosman-Sadie and Corrie Children's Act

Bosman-Sadie H and Corrie L A Practical Approach to the Children's Act (LexisNexis Durban 2010)

Brennan 2005 International Migration

Brennan D "Methodological challenges in research with trafficked persons: tales from the field" 2005 International Migration 35-48

Brownlie Public International Law

Brownlie I (ed) Principles of Public International Law 6th ed (Oxford University Press New York 2003)

Brownlie and Goodwin-Gill Human Rights

Brownlie I and Goodwin-Gill GS Basic Documents on Human Rights (Oxford University Press New York 2006)

Burchell Criminal Law

Burchell JM Principles of Criminal Law by J Burchell and J Milton 3rd ed (Juta Lansdowne 2005)

Buys and Cronjé Cyberlaw

Buys R and Cronjé F Cyberlaw @ SA II – the Law of the Internet in South Africa 2nd ed (Van Schaik Pretoria 2004)

Currie and De Waal Bill of Rights

Currie I and De Waal J The Bill of Rights Handbook 5th ed (Juta Lansdowne 2005)

David 2007 Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice

David F "Law enforcement responses to trafficking in persons: challenges and emerging good practice" 2007 Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 1-6

Dawes, Bray and Van der Merwe Child Well-being

Dawes A, Bray R and Van der Merwe A (eds) Monitoring Child Well-being – a South African Rights-based Approach (HRSC Press Cape Town 2007)

Defeis 2003/2004 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L

Defeis F "Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons – a new approach" 2003/2004 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L 485-491

Devenish Commentary

Devenish GE A Commentary on the South African Constitution (Butterworth Durban 1998)

Devenish Constitution

Devenish GE The South African Constitution (LexisNexis Durban 2005)

Dottridge and Weissbrodt 1999 German Yearbook of International Law

Dottridge M and Weissbrodt D "Review of the implementation of and follow-up to the conventions on slavery" 1999 German Yearbook of International Law 242-292

Dougherty and Burke 2008 America

Dougherty ME and Burke J "Exploitation and immigration policy – human bondage" 2008 America (April 14 2008 Whole No. 4811) 198(12):12-14

Dugard International Law

Dugard J International Law – a South African Perspective 3rd ed (Juta Lansdowne 2005)

Du Plessis Inleiding

Du Plessis L Inleiding tot die Reg 3rd ed (Juta Kenwyn 1999)

Foundation against Trafficking in Women et al Human Rights Standards

Foundation against Trafficking in Women, International Human Rights Law Group and Global Alliance against Traffic in Women Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons 3rd ed (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women 2001)

Fritz "Child Slavery/Trafficking"

Fritz E "Child Slavery/Trafficking" (Notes based on the 10th Annual National Child Abuse Conference hosted by the South African Professional Society on the Abuse of Children [SAPSAC] 2009) (Presentation for Students: Life Orientation [PGCE-Subject Methodology] on 14 April 2010 at the University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg)

GAATW Human Rights in Practice

Global Alliance against Traffic in Women (GAATW) Human Rights in Practice – a Guide to Assist Trafficked Women and Children (GAATW Bangkok 1999)

Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry

Gajic-Veljanoski O and Stewart DE "Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs" 2007 Trans-cultural Psychiatry 338-358

Gastrow Organised Crime

Gastrow P Organised Crime in the SADC Region (ISS Monograph Series No. 60) (Institute for Security Studies Pretoria 2001)

Harrold 2006 Charleston Law Review

Harrold MM "A new kind of traffic(king) cop on the international 'beat' of human trafficking" 2006 Charleston Law Review 98-122

Haynes 2004 Hum Rts Q

Haynes DF "Used, abused, arrested and deported: extending immigration benefits to protect the victims of trafficking and to secure the prosecution of traffickers" 2004 Hum Rts Q 221-272

Hodgkin and Newell Implementation Handbook

Hodgkin R and Newell P Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF New York 2002)

Human "Theory of Children's Rights"

Human S "The Theory of Children's Rights" in Boezaart T (ed) Child Law in South Africa (Juta Claremont 2009)

Hunt Common Law Crimes

Hunt PMA South African Criminal Law and Procedure – Volume II: Common Law Crimes (Juta Cape Town 1970)

IOM Breaking the Cycle

International Organization for Migration (IOM) Breaking the Cycle of Vulnerability: Responding to the Health Needs of Trafficked Women in East and Southern Africa (IOM Pretoria 2006)

IOM Counter-trafficking

International Organization for Migration (IOM) Handbook on Counter-trafficking for South African Government and Civil Society Stakeholders (IOM Pretoria 2009)

IOM Training of Trainers

International Organization for Migration (IOM) Training of Trainers on Combating Human Trafficking for South African Civil Society Organisations (IOM Pretoria 2007)

Kamidi Legal Response to Child Trafficking

Kamidi R A Legal Response to Child Trafficking in Africa: a Case Study of South Africa and Benin (LLM dissertation UWC 2007)

Kanics and Reiter 2001 Helsinki Monitor

Kanics J and Reiter G "2000: a year of significant achievements in the fight against trafficking in human beings" 2001 Helsinki Monitor 12(2):112-121

Kassan "Trafficking in Children"

Kassan D "Trafficking in Children" in Davel CJ and Skelton AM Commentary on the Children's Act (Juta Cape Town 2007)

Kassan and Mahery "Protective Measures"

Kassan D and Mahery P "Special Child Protective Measures in the Children's Act" in Boezaart T Child Law in South Africa (Juta Claremont 2009)

Kleyn and Viljoen Beginner's Guide

Kleyn D and Viljoen F Beginner's Guide for Law Students 3rd ed (Juta Law Lansdowne 2002)

Koyana and Bekker 2007 De Jure

Koyana DS and Bekker JC "The indomitable ukuthwala custom" 2007 De Jure 40(1):139-144

Kreston 2007 Child Abuse Research in South Africa

Kreston SS "Trafficking in children in South Africa: an analysis of pending legislation" 2007 Child Abuse Research in South Africa 35-50

Kruger Combating Human Trafficking

Kruger HB Combating Human Trafficking: a South African Legal Perspective (LLD thesis UFS 2010)

Kruger Organised Crime

Kruger A Organised Crime and Proceeds of Crime Law in South Africa (LexisNexis Durban 2008)

Lansdown, Hoal and Lansdown Specific Offences

Lansdown CWH, Hoal WL and Lansdown AV Gardner and Lansdown South African Criminal Law and Procedure: Volume II Specific Offences 6th ed (Juta Cape Town 1957)

Lansink 2006 Agenda

Lansink A "Human rights focus on trafficked women: an international law and feminist perspective" 2006 Agenda 70:45-56

Lee Human Trafficking

Lee L Human Trafficking (William Publishing Devon 2007)

Lotan "Brief Outline"

Lotan V "Brief Outline of Human Trafficking: Thai Cases No 1 and 2" (Unpublished contribution delivered at Tsireledzani: Towards an Integrated Human Trafficking National Action Plan Conference 25-27 March 2009 Durban)

McClain 2007 Vanderbilt J Transnat'l L

McClain TR "An ounce of prevention: improving the preventative measures of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act" 2007 Vanderbilt J Transnat'l L 580-607

McQuoid-Mason 2009 Obiter

McQuoid-Mason D "The practice of 'ukuthwala', the Constitution and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act" 2009 Obiter 716-723

Melvin Human Trafficking

Melvin JL Human Trafficking: a Theoretical Application of Anomie on the Tier Placement System Utilized by the U.S. Department of State's "Trafficking in Persons" Report (Master's Dissertation Grand Valley State University 2006)

Milton Common Law Crimes

Milton JRL South African Criminal Law and Procedure – Volume II: Common Law Crimes 3rd ed (Juta Kenwyn 1996)

Minnie "Sexual Offences"

Minnie D "Sexual Offences against Children" in Boezaart T Child Law in South Africa (Juta Claremont 2009)

Mnisi "Trafficking in Persons"

Mnisi J "Trafficking in Persons – Current Legal Framework in South Africa" (Unpublished contribution delivered at Training Workshop on Human Trafficking hosted by the National Prosecuting Authority 6-8 October 2008 Bloemfontein)

Molo Songololo Trafficking in Children

Molo Songololo Trafficking in Children for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation – South Africa (Molo Songololo Cape Town 2000)

Morawska "Trafficking"

Morawska E "Trafficking into and from Eastern Europe" in Lee M Human Trafficking (Willan Publishing Devon 2007)

Mwambene and Sloth-Nielsen 2011 African Human Rights Law Journal

Mwambene L & Sloth-Nielsen J "Benign accommodation? Ukuthwala, 'forced marriage' and the South African Children's Act" 2011 African Human Rights Law Journal 1-22

Ncube "Possible Contribution"

Ncube J "Possible Contribution of SADC Secretariat to Prevent and Respond to Human Trafficking, Labour and Sexual Exploitation of Children in Southern Africa" (Unpublished contribution delivered at Regional Conference on Prevention and Intervention Against Child Trafficking hosted by the Southern Africa Network Against Trafficking and Abuse of Children [SANTAC] 8-9 October 2008 Maputo)

Nowak Civil and Political Rights

Nowak M U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – CCPR Commentary 2nd ed (NP Engel Kehl 2005)

Obokata Trafficking of Human Beings

Obokata T Trafficking of Human Beings from a Human Rights Perspective: towards a Holistic Approach (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Leiden 2006)

Olivier et al Indigenous Law

Olivier NJJ et al Indigenous Law (Butterworths Durban 1995)

Picarelli "Historical Approaches"

Picarelli JT "Historical Approaches to the Trade in Human Beings" in Lee M Human Trafficking (Willan Publishing Devon 2007)

Planitzer Counter-trafficking Cooperation

Planitzer J Guiding Principles on Memoranda of Understanding between Key Stakeholders and Law Enforcement Agencies on Counter-trafficking Cooperation (IOM Vienna 2009)

Raymond 2002 Women's International Forum

Raymond JG "The new UN trafficking protocol" 2002 Women's International Forum 491-502

Rijken Trafficking in Persons

Rijken C Trafficking in Persons: Prosecution from a European Perspective (TMC Asser Press The Hague 2003)

Shelley "Human Trafficking"

Shelley L "Human Trafficking as a Form of Transnational Crime" in Lee M Human Trafficking (Willan Publishing Devon 2007)

Singh 2004 CILSA

Singh D "Piercing the veil on trafficking in women" 2004 CILSA 340-373

Slabbert 2009 Obiter

Slabbert M "This is my kidney, I can do what I want with it – property rights and ownership of human organs" 2009 Obiter 499-517

Smith "South Africa's Strategy"

Smith P "South Africa's Strategy to Address Human Trafficking in Persons" (Unpublished contribution delivered at Regional Conference on Prevention and Intervention against Child Trafficking hosted by the Southern Africa Network Against Trafficking and Abuse of Children [SANTAC] 8-9 October 2008 Maputo)

Snyman Criminal Law

Snyman CR Criminal Law 5th ed (LexisNexis Durban 2008)

Snyman "Victims"

Snyman R "Victims of Human Trafficking" in Davis L and Snyman R Victimology in South Africa (Van Schaik Pretoria 2005)

Stuurman 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking

Stuurman L "Anti-trafficking legislation can no longer be delayed" 2004 Eye on Human Trafficking 3:5

UN.GIFT "Demand for Forced Labour"

United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Demand for Forced Labour and Sexual Exploitation – How and Why It Fuels Human Trafficking" (Background Paper 004 Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:004] delivered at The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)

UN.GIFT "Human Trafficking"

United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Human Trafficking for the Removal of Organs and Body Parts" (Background Paper 011 Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:011] delivered at The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)

UN.GIFT "Profiling the Traffickers"

United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) "Profiling the Traffickers" (Background Paper 016 Workshop [UN.GIFT B.P.:016] delivered at The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 13-15 February 2008 Vienna)

UNODC Toolkit

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons – Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings (United Nations New York 2006)

UNODC Global Report

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons (UNODC Vienna 2009)

Viljoen Human Rights Law

Viljoen F International Human Rights Law in Africa (Oxford University Press New York 2007)

Weissbrodt and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery

Weissbrodt D and Anti-slavery International Abolishing Slavery and Its Contemporary Forms (Report for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights HR/PUB/02/4) (United Nations New York 2002)

Register of legislation

Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997

Child Care Act 74 of 1983

Children's Act 38 of 2005

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996

Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007

Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act 140 of 1992

Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996

General Law Amendment Act 139 of 1992

Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983

Identification Act 68 of 1997

Immigration Act 13 of 2002

International Co-operation in Criminal Matters Act 75 of 1996

National Health Act 61 of 2003

Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 12 of 2004

Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998

Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956

Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957

Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill B7–2010

Register of government publications

Proc R19 in GG 27503 of 18 April 2005

Proc R20 in GG 33187 of 14 May 2010

Register of international instruments

Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2000)

Palermo Protocol (Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children) (2000)

International Labour Organization Convention (No. 29) Concerning Forced Labour (1930)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

Register of case law

Green v Fitzgerald 1914 AD 88

National Director of Public Prosecutions v Geyser 2008 2 SACR (SCA) 103

National Director of Public Prosecutions v RO Cook Properties (Pty) Ltd; National Director of Public Prosecutions v 37 Gillespie Street Durban (Pty) Ltd; National Director of Public Prosecutions v Seevnarayan 2004 2 SACR 208 (SCA)

NDPP v Mohamed 2002 2 SACR 196 (CC)

R v Hanson 1849 2 C & K 912

R v Holliday 1927 CPD 395

S v Andrews (unreported case no. 27/50/1998; 27 August 2004, Cape Town Regional Court)

S v De Vries 2009 1 SACR 613 (C)

S v Dos Santos (unreported case; 19 July 2011, Pretoria Regional Court)

S v Eloff (unreported case no. SH599/08; Welkom)

S v Mudaly (pending case no. 41/890/2007; Durban Regional Court)

S v Netcare Kwa-Zulu (Proprietary) Limited (unreported case no. 41/1804/2010; 8 November 2010, Durban Regional Court)

S v Nyalungu 2005 JOL 13254 T

S v Sawatkan (unreported case no. 41/2045/08; Durban)

S v Sayed (unreported case no. 041/2713/2008; 18 March 2010, Durban Regional Court)

S v Wiphatawaithaya (unreported case no. 317/2/09; Durban)

Register of Internet sources

Fellows 2008 www.scribd.com

Fellows S 2008 Trafficking Body Parts in Mozambique and South Africa http://www.scribd.com/doc/23729111/Trafficking-Body-Parts-in-Mozambique-and-South-Africa-Mozambique-Human-Rights-League [date of use 21 Sep 2010]

HSRC 2010 www.hsrc.ac.za

Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) 2010 Tsireledzani: Understanding the Dimensions of Human Trafficking in South Africa http://www.hsrc.ac.za/Document-3562.phtml [date of use 25 Mar 2010]

International Crime and Terrorism 2004 www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca

International Crime and Terrorism 2004 Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/internationalcrime/human_trafficking-en.asp [date of use 30 Nov 2006]

IOM 2008 iom.org.za

International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2008 No Experience Necessary: The Internal Trafficking of Persons in South Africa http://iom.org.za/site/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&gid=123Itemid=50 [date of use 4 Nov 2008]

Jordan 2002 www.walnet.org

Jordan AD 2002 The Annotated Guide to the Complete UN Trafficking Protocol (Compiled for the International Human Rights Law Group) http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/UN-TRAFFICK.PDF [date of use 13 Nov 2008]

NPA 2010a www.pmg.org.za

National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) 2010 National Prosecuting Authority: Human Trafficking Statistics and Case Analysis – Presentation to the Justice and Constitutional Development Portfolio Committee on 16 November 2010 http://www.pmg.org.za/files/docs/101116npa.pdf [date of use 24 Nov 2010]

NPA 2010b www.pmg.org.za

National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) 2010 National Prosecuting Authority Statistics November 2010 – Adv A van der Byl http://www.pmg.org.za/files/docs

/101117npa.ppt [date of use 24 Nov 2010]

NPA 2010c www.pmg.org.za

National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) 2010 National Prosecuting Authority: Statistics on Human Trafficking Cases – Presentation to the Justice and Constitutional Development Portfolio Committee on 16 November 2010 http://www.pmg.org.za/files/docs/101116NPAStats.xls [date of use 16 Nov 2010]

Parliamentary Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development 2010 www.pmg.org.za

Parliamentary Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development 2010 Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill (B7-2010): Department's Response to Submissions – Minutes of Meeting of Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development, 15 September 2010 http://www.pmg.org.za/print/23387 [date of use 24 Nov 2010]

SALRC 2004 www.doj.gov.za

South African Law Reform Commission (SALRC) 2004 Trafficking in Persons. Project 131 (Issue Paper 25) http://www.doj.gov.za/salrc/ipapers/ip25_prj

_2004.pdf [date of use 11 Mar 2008]

SALRC 2006 www.doj.gov.za

South African Law Reform Commission (SALRC) 2006 Trafficking in Persons. Project 131 (Discussion Paper 111) http://www.doj.gov.za/salrc/dpapers.htm [date of use 11 Mar 2008]

SALRC 2008 www.justice.gov.za

South African Law Reform Commission (SALRC) 2008 Report on Trafficking in Persons. Project 131 http://www.justice.gov.za/salrc/reports/r_pr131_

trafficking_2008.pdf [date of use 23 Mar 2008]

SAPA 2011 www.news24.com

SAPA 2011 'Human Trafficker Gets Life Sentence' News24 20 July 2011 1 http://www.news24.com/printArticle.aspx?iframe&aid=bdbc90ea-5794-403c-95df-e7 [date of use 21 Jul 2011]

SOCA Unit 2009 www.info.gov.za

SOCA Unit (NPA) (Sexual Offences and Community Affairs Unit in National Prosecuting Authority) 2009 Tsireledzani – Prevent, Respond and Support http://www.info.gov.za/issues/humantrafficking/documents/tsireledzani.pdf [date of use 4 Mar 2010]

The Future Group 2007 tfgwebmaster.web.aplu.net

The Future Group 2007 Human Trafficking – a Human Security Crisis of Global Proportions http://tfgwebmaster.web.aplu.net/wwwthefuturegrouporg/id20.html [date of use 20 Aug 2008]

UN General Assembly 2000 www.unodc.org

UN General Assembly 2000 Addendum: Interpretative Notes for the Official Records (Travaux Préparatoires) of the Negotiation of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. A/55/383/Add.1 http://www.unodc.org/pdf/ctoccop_2006/04-60074_ebook-e.pdf [date of use 18 Nov 2008]

UNODC 2004 www.unodc.org

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2004 Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en

/treaties/CTOC/legislative-guide.html [date of use 17 Aug 2010]

UNODC 2008 www.unodc.org

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2008 Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons – Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings. New York: United Nations http://www.unodc.org/documents

/human trafficking/HT_Toolkit08_English.pdf [date of use 16 Oct 2008]

UNODC 2009 www.unodc.org

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2009 Model Law for Trafficking in Persons http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/

Model_Law _against_TIP.Pdf [date of use 14 Jul 2010]

US Department of State 2007 www.state.gov

United States of America Department of State (US Department of State) 2007 Trafficking in Persons Report http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007 [date of use 22 Jul 2007]

US Department of State 2008 www.state.gov

United States of America Department of State (US Department of State) 2008 Trafficking in Persons Report http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2008 [date of use 1 Aug 2008]

US Department of State 2009 www.state.gov

United States of America Department of State (US Department of State) 2009 Trafficking in Persons Report http://www.state.gov/documents/organization

/123357.pdf [date of use 30 Jun 2009]

US Department of State 2010 www.state.gov

United States of America Department of State (US Department of State) 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report http://www.state.gov/documents

/organization/142979.pdf [date of use 18 Jun 2010]

US Department of State 2011 www.state.gov

United States of America Department of State (US Department of State) 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011 [date of use 15 Jul 2011]

Zimmerman et al 2006 www.lshtm.ac.uk

Zimmerman C et al 2006 Stolen Smiles: a Summary Report on the Physical and Psychological Health Consequences of Women and Adolescents Trafficked in Europe (Report for the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London) http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/genderviolence [date of use 14 Jul 2008]

Published

2017-05-22

How to Cite

Kruger, H. B., & Oosthuizen, H. (2017). South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the Arsenal of Existing Law to Combat Human Trafficking. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 15(1), 282–343. https://doi.org/10.17159/1727-3781/2012/v15i1a2466

Issue

Section

Articles