Comparison of capsule-mixed versus hand-mixed glass ionomer cements Part 1: compressive strength and surface hardness




Capsule-mix, Compressive strength, Glass ionomer cement, Hand-mix, Surface hardness.


Dental restorative glass ionomer cements (GIC) are available as hand-mixed or capsulated products. Capsulation facilitates uniform ratios of powder to liquid, that should result in an optimal end-product. If this is evident, the degree to which capsulated GIC are mechanically stronger will aid in deciding when to use them instead of the handmixed variety. The compressive strength and surface hardness of handmixed GIC were compared to capsule-mixed equivalents. Eighty samples were manufactured from hand-mixed GIC:
Riva Self Cure; Fuji IX GP; Ketac Universal, Ketac Molar Easymix, and equivalent capsule-mixed GIC: Riva Self Cure; Fuji IX GP; Ketac Universal Aplicap and Ketac Molar Aplicap. Compressive fracture strength was tested using a universal testing apparatus. Surface hardness was measured with a Vickers digital micro-hardness tester Significant differences were found between the compressive
strength of RSCH and RSCC (P = 0.027), and, between KMH and KMC (P < 0.001). Significant differences in surface hardness were found between FIXH and FIXC (P = 0.031),KUH and KUC (P < 0.001), as well as KMH and KMC (P = 0.006). Three capsulated forms of GIC (RSCC, KUC, KMC) demonstrated superior mechanical properties. Capsulated GIC offer advantages which may translate to clinical application.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Riaan Lombard, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, 31 Bophelo Road, Prinshof Campus, Riviera, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa


Savin C, Petcu A, Gavrilӑ L, Mӑrțu-Ştefanache M-A, Bӑlan A. Dental materials for coronary obturation utilized in pedodontics. Int J Med Dent. 2016; 20(3):171-6.

Pitel ML. Reconsidering glass-ionomer cements for direct restorations. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2014; 35(1):26-31.

Sidhu SK, Nicholson JW. A review of glass-ionomer cements for clinical dentistry. J Funct Biomater. 2016; 7(3):1-15.

Ilie N, Hickel R. Mechanical behavior of glass ionomer cements as a function of loading condition and mixing procedure. Dent Mater J. 2007; 26(4):526-33.

Van Meerbeek B, De Munck J, Yoshida Y, et al. Adhesion to enamel and dentin: Current status and future challenges. Oper Dent. 2003; 28(3):215-35.

Forsten L. Fluoride release and uptake by glass ionomers. Scand J Dent Res. 1991; 99(3):241-5.

Croll TP, Nicholson J. Glass ionomer cements in pediatric dentistry: Review of the literature. Pediatr Dent. 2002; 24(5):423-9.

Knight GM. The benefits and limitations of glass-ionomer cements and their use in contemporary dentistry. In: Glass-ionomers in dentistry: Springer; 2016: 57-79.

Xie D, Brantley W, Culbertson B, Wang G. Mechanical properties and microstructures of glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater. 2000; 16(2):129-38.

Dowling AH, Fleming GJ. Are encapsulated anterior glass-ionomer restoratives better than their hand-mixed equivalents? J Dent. 2009; 37(2):133-40.

Wilson AD, Nicholson JW. Acid-base cements: Their biomedical and industrial applications: Cambridge University Press; 2005.

Baig MS, Fleming GJ. Conventional glass-ionomer materials: A review of the developments in glass powder, polyacid liquid and the strategies of reinforcement. J Dent. 2015; 43(8):897-912.

Nomoto R, McCabe JF. Effect of mixing methods on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cements. J Dent. 2001; 29(3):205-10.

3M ESPE Canada. Product specification for Ketac Molar Quick Aplicap. 3M ESPE Canada Multimedia Online Resources I [updated 19 Jan 2012; cited 2019 15 August] Available from: media/296110O/3m-ketac-molar-quick-aplicap-glassionomer-filling-material.pdf.

3M ESPE Deutschland. Product specification for Ketac Universal Aplicap. [updated 16 Aug 2016; cited 2019 24 July]. Available from: 1090408O/ketac-universal-aplicap-technicalproduct-profile-pdf.pdf

Kaushik M, Sharma R, Reddy P, Pathak P, Udameshi P, Jayabal NV. Comparative evaluation of voids present in conventional and capsulated glass ionomer cements using two different conditioners: An in vitro study. Int J Biomater. 2014; 2014:1-5.

Dowling AH, Fleming GJ. Is encapsulation of posterior glass-ionomer restoratives the solution to clinically induced variability introduced on mixing? Dent Mater. 2008; 24(7):957-66.

Fleming GJ, Farooq AA, Barralet JE. Influence of powder/liquid mixing ratio on the performance of a restorative glassionomer dental cement. Biomater. 2003; 24(23):4173-9.

Billington R, Williams J, Pearson G. Variation in powder/liquid ratio of a restorative glass-ionomer cement used in dental practice. Br Dent J. 1990; 169(6):164-7.

Fleming G, Marquis PM, Shortall A. The influence of clinically induced variability on the distribution of compressive fracture strengths of a hand-mixed zinc phosphate dental cement. Dent Mater. 1999; 15(2):87-97.

Mount GJ, Hume WR, Ngo HC, Wolff MS. Preservation and restoration of tooth structure: John Wiley & Sons; 2016.

Fleming G, Zala D. An assessment of encapsulated versus hand-mixed glass ionomer restoratives. Oper Dent. 2003; 28(2):168-77.

White SN, Yu Z. Compressive and diametral tensile strengths of current adhesive luting agents. Journal Prosthet Dent. 1993; 69(6):568-72.

Mitchell C, Douglas W. Comparison of the porosity of hand-mixed and capsulated glass-ionomer luting cements. Biomater. 1997; 18(16):1127-31.

SDI Australia. Product specification for Riva Self cure HV. [updated 25 September 2017; cited 2019 24 July]. Available from: uploads/brochure/brochures_EN/ RIVA_SC_Bro_EN.pdf

3M ESPE Deutschland. Product specifications for Ketac Universal Powder and Liquid. [updated 25 Nov 2016; cited 2019 24 July]. Available from: mws/_media/1090406O/_3m-ketac-universal-handmixtechnical-product-profile-ltr-global.pdf

Fleming GJ, Kenny SM, Barralet JE. The optimisation of the initial viscosity of an encapsulated glass-ionomer

restorative following different mechanical mixing regimes. J Dent. 2006; 34(2):155-63.

McKinney J, Antonucci J, Rupp N. Wear and microhardness of glass-ionomer cements. J Dent Res. 1987; 66(6):1134-9.

Fleming GJ, Dowling AH, Addison O. The crushing truth about glass ionomer restoratives: Exposing the standard of the standard. J Dent. 2012; 40(3):181-8.

Baig MS, Dowling AH, Cao X, Fleming GJ. A discriminatory mechanical testing performance indicator protocol for hand-mixed glass-ionomer restoratives. Dent Mater. 2015; 31(3):273-83.

GC America. Operatory instructions for GC Fuji IX GP capsules. [updated 5 Apr 2019; cited 2019 16 September]. Available from: GC_Fuji_ IX_GP/325282-GCFujiIXGP-IFU4L.pdf

Baig MS, Dowling AH, Fleming GJ. Hertzian indentation testing of glass-ionomer restoratives: A reliable and clinically relevant testing approach. J Dent. 2013; 41(11):968-73.

Coldebella CR, Santos‐Pinto L, Zuanon ACC. Effect of ultrasonic excitation on the porosity of glass ionomer cement: A scanning electron microscope evaluation. Microsc Res Tech. 2011; 74(1):54-7.

Menne-Happ U, Ilie N. Effect of heat application on the mechanical behaviour of glass ionomer cements. Clin Oral

RESEARCH < 63Investig. 2014; 18(2):643-50.

Zoergiebel J, Ilie N. Evaluation of a conventional glass ionomer cement with new zinc formulation: Effect of coating, aging and storage agents. Clin Oral Investig. 2013; 17(2):619-26.

Prentice LH, Tyas MJ, Burrow MF. The effect of mixing time on the handling and compressive strength of an encapsulated glass-ionomer cement. Dent Mater. 2005; 21(8):704-8.

37. Mulder R, Mohamed N. Variation of powder/liquid ratios of capsulated glass-ionomer materials. NZ Dent J. 2019; 115(2):47-56.

Dionysopoulos D, Tolidis K, Strakas D, Gerasimou P, Sfeikos T, Gutknecht N. Effect of radiant heat on conventional glass ionomer cements during setting by using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm). Lasers Med Sci. 2017; 32(3):703-9.

Alrahlah A. Diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and surface microhardness of bioactive bulk fill restorative. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2018; 19(1):13-9.

Yap A, Cheang P, Chay P. Mechanical properties of two restorative reinforced glass-ionomer cements. J Oral Rehabil. 2002; 29(7):682-8.

Hamid DMA, Mahmoud GM, El-Sharkawy FM, Auf EAA. Effect of surface protection, staining beverages and aging on the color stability and hardness of recently introduced uncoated glass ionomer restorative material. Fut Dent J. 2018; 4(2):288-96.

Šalinović I, Stunja M, Schauperl Z, Verzak Ž, MalčićAI, Rajić VB. Mechanical properties of high viscosity glass ionomer and glass hybrid restorative materials. Act Stomato Croa. 2019; 53(2):125-31.

GC Europe. Operatory instructions for Fugi IX GP. [updated 18 January 2018; cited 2019 1 August]. Available at: (FAST)_ en.pdf

Dionysopoulos D, Tolidis K, Tortopidis D, Gerasimou P, Sfeikos T. Effect of a calcium chloride solution treatment on physical and mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements. Odontology. 2018; 106(4):429-38.

3M ESPE Canada. Product brochure for Ketac Molar Easymix. [updated 19 March 2004; cited 2019 26 September]. Available at: ketac-molar-easymixbrochure.pdf.

Guggenberger R, May R, Stefan K. New trends in glassionomer chemistry. Biomaterials. 1998; 19(6):479-83.

Bueno LS, Silva RM, Magalhães APR, et al. Positive correlation between fluoride release and acid erosion of restorative glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater. 2019; 35(1):135-43.

De Moor RJ, Verbeeck RM, De Maeyer EA. Fluoride release profiles of restorative glass ionomer formulations. Dent Mater. 1996; 12(2):88-95.




How to Cite

Arnold, S., Warren, N., Buchanan, G. D., & Lombard, R. . (2022). Comparison of capsule-mixed versus hand-mixed glass ionomer cements Part 1: compressive strength and surface hardness. South African Dental Journal, 77(02), 57–64.