Proctoring as a human substitution for online summative assessments in a comprehensive open distance e-learning institution: Opportunities and obstacles




proctoring tools, COVID-19, artificial intelligence, comprehensive open distance e-learning, ethical behaviour


At a comprehensive open distance e-learning (CODeL) university in South Africa, assessment practices were converted and offered online during and post COVID-19. Innovative proctoring methods were applied to secure the authenticity of online summative assessments. However, the use of such proctoring tools to ensure ethical behaviour of students during summative assessments remains questionable, as these tools are not infallible. A qualitative approach was applied to explore ways in which online proctoring tools can contribute toward ensuring authentic summative assessments. Through the application of collaborative autoethnography, the researchers obtained insight into opportunities and obstacles that may influence the effective use of online proctoring tools to support summative assessment activities. Findings indicate that students would go to great lengths to consult unauthorised material and share answers during summative assessments. Therefore, to enhance perceptions of ethical conduct in higher education, it is recommended that ethical principles are expanded through extended training and guidance with revolutionised proctoring technologies.


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How to Cite

Jacobs, L., & Mncube, S. (2023). Proctoring as a human substitution for online summative assessments in a comprehensive open distance e-learning institution: Opportunities and obstacles. The Independent Journal of Teaching and Learning, 18(2), 93–108.