Proctoring as a human substitution for online summative assessments in a comprehensive open distance e-learning institution: Opportunities and obstacles

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/ijtl.v18i2.17313

Keywords:

proctoring tools, COVID-19, artificial intelligence, comprehensive open distance e-learning, ethical behaviour

Abstract

At a comprehensive open distance e-learning (CODeL) university in South Africa, assessment practices were converted and offered online during and post COVID-19. Innovative proctoring methods were applied to secure the authenticity of online summative assessments. However, the use of such proctoring tools to ensure ethical behaviour of students during summative assessments remains questionable, as these tools are not infallible. A qualitative approach was applied to explore ways in which online proctoring tools can contribute toward ensuring authentic summative assessments. Through the application of collaborative autoethnography, the researchers obtained insight into opportunities and obstacles that may influence the effective use of online proctoring tools to support summative assessment activities. Findings indicate that students would go to great lengths to consult unauthorised material and share answers during summative assessments. Therefore, to enhance perceptions of ethical conduct in higher education, it is recommended that ethical principles are expanded through extended training and guidance with revolutionised proctoring technologies.

References

Al-Zoubi, A., Dmour, M. & Aldmour, R. (2022) Blockchain as a Learning Management System for Laboratories 4.0. International Journal of Online & Biomedical Engineering 18(12) pp.16-34.

Association of Information Science and Technology. (2023) What is information science? https://www.asist.org/about/what-is-information-science/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Badaru, K.A. & Adu, E.O. (2022) Platformisation of Education: An Analysis of South African Universities’ Learning Management Systems. Research in Social Sciences and Technology 7(2) pp.66-86.

Bejrajh, V. & Themane, M. (2022) Using Smartphones in Teaching English to Secondary School Students in South Africa. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research 4 pp.76-90.

Castets-Renard, C. & Robichaud-Durand, S. (2022) Online Test Proctoring Software and Social Control: Is the Legal Framework for Personal Information and AI Protective Enough in Canada? Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence Solution to Enhance the Privacy in Digital Identity and Internet of Things. Forthcoming: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press.

Clay, J. (2020) Digital assessment in higher education, https://ijtl.iie.ac.za/newpage5c162231 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Coghlan, S., Miller, T. & Paterson, J. (2021) Good proctor or “big brother”? Ethics of online exam supervision technologies. Philosophy & Technology 34 pp.1581-1606.

Corgi. (2022) Anthony Giddens and the theory of structuration. https://studycorgi.com/anthony-giddensand-the-theory-of-structuration/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Duncan, A. & Joyner, D. (2022) On the necessity (or lack thereof) of digital proctoring: Drawbacks, perceptions, and alternatives. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 38(5) pp.1482-1496.

Dyomfana, B. (2021) Unisa’s rule for online exams. https://www.careersportal.co.za/education/universities/unisas-rules-for-online-exams (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Edwards, J. (2021). Ethical autoethnography: Is it Possible? International Journal of Qualitative Methods 20(3), doi:10.1177/1609406921995306

Ellis C., Adams T. E. & Bochner A. P. (2011) Autoethnography: An overview. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(1) p.10, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101108 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Englund, H., Gerdin, J. & Burns, J. (2011) 25 years of Giddens in accounting research: achievements, limitations and the future. Accounting, Organisations and Society 36 pp.494-513.

Fiano, K.S., Medina, M.S. & Whalen, K. (2021) The need for new guidelines and training for remote /online testing and proctoring. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500292/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Fynn, A. & Janse van Vuuren, H. (2017) Investigating the role of non-academic support systems of students completing a Master’s Degree in Open, Distance and e-Learning. Perspectives in Education, 35(1) pp.186-199.

Giddens, A. (1984) The construction of society. Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press

Gilbert, C. (2022) Advantages and disadvantages of online examination system. https://cirrusassessment.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-online-examination-system/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Gous, N. (2019) Students who leaded exams papers faced up to five years’ suspension: Unisa. https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-05-27-students-who-leaked-exam-papers-faceup-to-five-years-suspension-unisa/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Gqoboka, H., Anakpo, G. & Mishi, S. (2022) Challenges Facing ICT Use during COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in South Africa. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management 12(9) pp.1395-1401.

Grant, C. & Osanloo, A. (2014) Understanding, selecting and integrating a theoretical framework in dissertation research: Creating the blueprint for your house. Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice and Research. Volume 4(2) pp.12-26 https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1058505.pdf (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Heeralal, P.J.H. (2015) Improving postgraduate supervision in an open and distance learning environment: A case study at the College of Education, University of South Africa. South African Journal of Higher Education 29(3) pp.87-100.

Holden, O.L., Norris, M.E. & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2021) Academic integrity in online assessment: A research review. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2021.639814/full (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Hussein, M.J., Yusuf, J., Deb, A.S., Fong, L. & Naidu, S. (2020) An evaluation of online proctoring tools. Open Praxis 12(4) pp.509-525.

Hypertext. (2023) Unisa’s online exams to become a permanent fixture. https://htxt.co.za/2020/09/23/unisas-online-exams-to-become-a-permanent-fixture/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Jia, J. & He, Y. (2021) The design, implementation and pilot application of an intelligent online proctoring system for online exams. Interactive Technology and Smart Education 19(1) pp.112-120.

Jones, M.R. & Karsten, H. (2003) Giddens’s structuration theory and information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 32 pp.127-157.

Khalil, M., Prinsloo, P. & Slade, S. (2022) In the nexus of integrity and surveillance: Proctoring (re) considered. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 38(6) pp.1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12713 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Kharbat, F.F. & Daabes, A.S. (2021) E-proctored exams during the COVID-19 pandemic: A close understanding. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884061/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Lapadat, J.C. (2017) Ethics in autoethnography and collaborative autoethnography. Qualitative inquiry 23(8) pp.589-603.

Lee, K. & Fanguy, M. (2022) Online exam proctoring technologies: educational innovation or deterioration? https://bera-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjet.13182 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Majola, M.X. & Mudau, P.K. (2022) Lecturers' Experiences of Administering Online Examinations at a South African Open Distance E-Learning University during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Educational Methodology 8(2) pp.275-283.

Manyike, T.V. (2017) Postgraduate supervision at an open distance e-learning institution in South Africa. South African Journal of Education 37(2) pp.1-11.

Masud, M.M., Hayawi, K., Mathew, S.S., Michael, T.& El Barachi, M. (2022) Smart Online Exam Proctoring Assist for Cheating Detection. International Conference on Advanced Data Mining and Applications pp.118-132.

McMillan, J.H. & Schumacher, S. (2010) Research in Education. Evidence-based inquiry. (7th ed.) Boston: Pearson.

Miyahara, M. & Fukao, A. 2022. Exploring the use of collaborative autoethnography as a tool for facilitating the development of researcher reflexivity. System 105(102751) pp. 1-9.

Muncey T. (2005) Doing autoethnography. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 4(3) p.5, http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/4_1/pdf/muncey.pdf (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Ndovela, S. & Marimuthu, M. (2022) aMangosuthu University of Technology, Umlazi, South Africa, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Academic Voices p.443.

Ngulube, P. (2018) Handbook of research on heritage management and preservation. Pennsylvania: IGI Global.

Noorbehbahani, F., Mohammadi, A. & Aminazadeh, M. (2022) A systematic review of research on cheating in online exams from 2010 to 2021. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-022-10927-7 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Orlikowski, W.J. & Robey, D. (1991) Information technology and the structuring of organisations. Information Systems Research 2(2) pp.143-169.

Peñalvo, F.J., Gorell, A., Garcia, V.A. & Prado, M.G. (2020) Recommendations for mandatory online assessment in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-15-7869-4_6 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Pham, H.T. (2019) The application of structuration theory in studying collaboration between librarians and academic staff in universities in Australia and Vietnam. http://informationr.net/ir/24-3/paper829.html (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Phuthela, N. & Dwivedi, S. (2020) A qualitative study of students’ perspective on e- learning adoption in India. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education 12(4) pp.545-559. https://doi.org/10.1108/JARHE-02-2019-0041 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Proctortrack. (2021) Online proctoring technology: Key to secure online exams, https://www.proctortack.com/blog/article/online-proctoring-technology-key-to-secure-online-exams (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Rahman, A. (2022) Mapping the Efficacy of Artificial Intelligence-based Online Proctored Examination (OPE) in Higher Education during COVID-19: Evidence from Assam, India. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research 21(9) pp.76-94.

Roy, R. & Uekusa, S. (2020) Collaborative autoethnography: ‘self-reflection” as a timely alternative research approach during the global pandemic. Qualitative Research Journal 20(4) pp.382-392, doi:10.1108/QRJ-06-2020-0054

Shanks, G. & Bekmamedova, N. (2018) Case study research in information systems. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323515278_Case_study_research_in_information_systems (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Slusky, L. (2020) Cybersecurity of online proctoring systems. Journal of International Technology and Information Management 29(1) pp.56-83.

Sridhar, A. & Rajshekhar, J.S. (2022) AI-Integrated Proctoring System for Online Exams. Journal of Artificial Intelligence 4(2) pp.139-148.

Stephens, N.M. (2021) How to catch student exam cheating with remote proctoring. https://assess.com/remote-proctoringsecurity/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Stigter, S. (2016) Autoethnography as a new approach in conservation. Studies in Conservation 61(2) pp.227-232.

Swart, O. (2015) Alternative Assessments: The journey from venue-based examinations to take-home and online timed assessments. Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn, Venice, Italy, October 17-24. Springer International Publishing, pp. 378-390.

Takyar, A. (2022) Remote proctoring using AI – Enabling seamless management of online examinations. https://www.leewayhertz.com/remote-proctoring-using-ai/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Tanner, L. & Piper, C. (2010). Succumbing to temptation – to cheat or not to cheat? Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity in distance education courses. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/35760/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Thompson, K. (2017) Giddens’ structuration theory – a summary. https://revisesociology.com/2017/03/02/giddens-structuration-theory-a-summary/ (Accessed 30 January 2023).

UNESCO. (2022) Artificial intelligence in education. https://www.unesco.org/en/digitaleducation/artificial-intelligence (Accessed 30 January 2023).

University of South Africa (2023) Know your proctoring tools for the examination. https://www.unisa.ac.za/sites/myunisa/default/Announcements/Know-your-proctoring-tools-for-theexamination (Accessed 30 January 2023).

University of South Africa. (2022). Activating your camera for Moodle proctoring tool for MCQ examinations. https://www.studocu.com/en-za/document/university-of-south-africa/introduction-toafrican-philosophy/activating-your-camera-for-moodle-proctoring-tool-for-mcq-examinations-edited-23may2022/29161775 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

van Breda, M. & van Wyk, M. (2018) Electronic-Portfolio Approach to Enhance Self-Directed Learning. Transnational Perspectives on Innovation in Teaching and Learning Technologies pp.45-66. Brill.

Wall, S. (2006) An Autoethnography on Learning About Autoethnography. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5(2) pp.146-160. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500205 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Weleschik, A., Dyjur, P. & Kelly, P. (2019) Online assessment in higher education. https://taylorinstitute.ucalgary.ca/sites/default/files/TI%20Guides/Online%20Assessment%20Guide-2019-10-24.pdf (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Woldeab, D. & Brothen, T. (2019) Twenty-first century assessment: online proctoring, text anxiety and student performance. International Journal of E-Learning and Distance Education 34(1) pp.2-10. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1227595.pdf (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Woldegiorgis, E.T. (2022) Mitigating the digital divide in, the South African higher education system in the face of the COVID-10 pandemic. Perspectives in Education 40(3) pp.197-211. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18820/2519593X/pie.v40.i3.13 (Accessed 30 January 2023).

Downloads

Published

17-11-2023

How to Cite

Jacobs, L., & Mncube, S. (2023). Proctoring as a human substitution for online summative assessments in a comprehensive open distance e-learning institution: Opportunities and obstacles. The Independent Journal of Teaching and Learning, 18(2), 93–108. https://doi.org/10.17159/ijtl.v18i2.17313

Issue

Section

Articles